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棉花学报
2022年 第34卷 第5期
刊出日期:2022-09-15
  
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    研究与进展
    陆地棉-异常棉异附加系抗旱耐盐性评价及关键生理生化指标测定
    上官艺馨,曹静,季为,陈祥龙,徐鹏,郭琪,沈新莲,徐珍珍
    棉花学报. 2022, 34(5):  369-382.  doi:10.11963/cs20220045
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    【目的】筛选具有抗旱或耐盐潜力的陆地棉-异常棉异附加系,并明确体现其抗旱耐盐性的关键生理生化指标,旨在为棉花抗旱耐盐育种提供理论与材料基础。【方法】利用异常棉每条染色体特异的简单重复序列(simple sequence repeat, SSR)标记鉴定陆地棉-异常棉异附加系的基因型;通过表型观察和相关指标测定,筛选出具有抗旱或耐盐潜力的异附加系,并测定其生理生化指标,包括过氧化氢(H2O2)、丙二醛(malondialdehyde, MDA)、脯氨酸(proline, PRO)的含量、SPAD(soil and plant analyzer development)值及过氧化物酶(peroxidase, POD)、过氧化氢酶(catalase, CAT)和超氧化物歧化酶(superoxide dismutase, SOD)的活性。【结果】陆地棉-异常棉异附加系的传递率为34.66%~51.50%;MAAL_1B、MAAL_5B、MAAL_7B、MAAL_8B、MAAL_11B和MAAL_12B具有抗旱潜力,MAAL_4B、MAAL_6B、MAAL_8B、MAAL_9B和MAAL_10B具有耐盐潜力。干旱或盐胁迫下轮回亲本陆地棉苏棉8289和具有抗旱或耐盐潜力的异附加系叶片中的MDA、H2O2和PRO的含量与干旱前或清水对照相比均有不同程度地增加,且轮回亲本的MDA和H2O2含量更高。干旱处理后10 d,与轮回亲本相比,MAAL_1B中CAT和SOD的活性、MAAL_5B中CAT和SOD的活性及PRO含量、MAAL_7B中SOD的活性、MAAL_8B中POD、CAT和SOD的活性及SPAD值、MAAL_11B中POD和CAT的活性以及MAAL_12B中CAT活性及SPAD值显著或极显著提高;350 mmol·L-1 NaCl处理后3 d,与轮回亲本相比,MAAL_6B中POD和SOD的活性及SPAD值、MAAL_8B中CAT活性、MAAL_9B中POD和SOD的活性以及MAAL_10B中SOD活性和SPAD值均显著或极显著提高。【结论】部分陆地棉-异常棉异附加系具有抗旱或耐盐潜力,且可能通过不同的生理生化过程应答干旱或高盐胁迫。


    [Objective] Screening the drought- or salt-resistant lines and measurement of key physiological and biochemical indexes for a set of monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) derived from Gossypium anomalum in G. hirsutum background would provide the theory and material basis for drought and salt resistance breeding in cotton. [Method] The genotypes of all the MAALs were confirmed by chromosome-specific simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers of G. anomalum. The MAALs with drought or salt resistance potential was screened based on the phenotypic observation and related indexes measurement, and physiological and biochemical indexes were determined, including the content of hydrogen peroxide(H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA), proline(PRO) and chlorophyll(SPAD value) and the activity of peroxidase(POD), catalase(CAT) and superoxide dismutase(SOD). [Result] The transmission rate of MAALs ranged from 34.66% to 51.50%. MAAL_1B, MAAL_5B, MAAL_7B, MAAL_8B, MAAL_11B, and MAAL_12B had drought resistance potential, while MAAL_4B, MAAL_6B, MAAL_8B, MAAL_9B, and MAAL_10B showed salt resistance potential. Under drought or salt stress, the content of MDA, H2O2 and PRO of all the tested plants increased compared with the control conditions, and the content of MDA and H2O2 of the recurrent parent G. hirsutum Su8289 was higher than that of MAALs with drought or salt resistance potential. The CAT and SOD activity in MAAL_1B, the CAT, SOD activity and PRO content in MAAL_5B, the SOD activity in MAAL_7B, the POD, CAT, SOD activity and SPAD value in MAAL_8B, the POD and CAT activity in MAAL_11B, and the CAT activity and SPAD value in MAAL_12B were significantly or extremely significantly higher than that in Su8289 at 10 days after drought treatment. Three days after 350 mmol·L-1 NaCl treatment, the POD, SOD activity and SPAD value in MAAL_6B, the CAT activity in MAAL_8B, the POD and SOD activity in MAAL_9B, and the SOD activity and SPAD value in MAAL_10B were significantly or extremely significantly higher than that in Su8289. [Conclusion] Some MAALs had drought or salt resistance potential, and may respond to drought or salt stress through different physiological and biochemical process.

    不同灌水频率和灌溉定额对南疆无膜棉蕾铃时空分布及产量形成的影响
    李志鹏,万素梅,胡守林,陈国栋,马云珍,周相,雷亚平,熊世武,辛明华,杨北方,李亚兵
    棉花学报. 2022, 34(5):  383-400.  doi:10.11963/cs20210073
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    【目的】研究不同灌水频率和灌溉定额对无膜棉蕾铃时空分布特征和产量形成的影响,为制定南疆无膜植棉灌溉制度提供参考。【方法】2020―2021年以中棉619为供试品种,无膜种植,采用单因素随机区组设计,第一年设置3个灌水处理,分别为花铃期灌水4次(W4)、6次(W6)、8次(W8),灌水间隔分别为12 d、8 d、6 d;第二年设置4个灌水处理,在第一年基础上增加了处理W7,即在花铃期灌水7次、灌水间隔7 d,2年各处理灌水定额均为69 mm,W8最后一次灌水定额为52.2 mm;2年均以花铃期灌水8次、灌水定额为45 mm的地膜棉作为对照(CK)。调查棉花各生育时期株式图和产量及构成。【结果】对横向和纵向各部位棉铃成铃率的统计分析表明:吐絮期W4上部果枝及外围成铃数和成铃率低于其他处理,W6与W8各部位成铃数和成铃率相近,W7成铃数和成铃率高于W4、W6、W8。吐絮期棉铃的脱落率分析结果显示:2年均表现出外围铃和上部果枝棉铃脱落率高的规律,但各处理的脱落部位和脱落率不同。产量构成因素和水分利用效率分析结果表明:W7处理单位面积铃数、铃重、籽棉产量均显著高于W4,而与CK差异不显著,水分利用效率高于W6和W8。【结论】无膜棉花铃期灌水频率和灌溉定额过高或者过低都会影响棉花成铃数和棉铃时空分布,显著影响铃重,进而影响产量。W7可以为南疆无膜棉灌溉制度的制定提供参考,即蕾期灌水2次,灌水周期为10 d,花铃期灌水7次,灌水周期为7 d,灌溉定额为573 mm。


    [Objective] This study aims to investigate the effect of irrigation frequency and irrigation quota on the characteristics of temporal and spatial distribution of reproductive organs and yield of filmless cotton, so as to provide references for the irrigation system to the cultivation of filmless cotton in Southern Xinjiang. [Method] From 2020 to 2021, using Zhongmian 619 as the test variety, the single-factor random block design was adopted. In the field trial of the first year, treatments of 3 irrigation frequencies were set, including 4 times (W4), 6 times (W6), and 8 times (W8) irrigation during the flowering and boll-setting period. The corresponding irrigation interval of each treatment was 12 d,8 d and 6 d, respectively. In the second year, treatments of 4 irrigation frequencies were set, and the W7 treatment of 7 times irrigation with 7 days irrigations interval was included during the flowering and boll-setting period on the basis of the first year's experimental setup. The irrigation quota of all treatments of filmless cotton in two years were 69 mm per time, besides the last round of irrigation in W8 treatment which used 52.2 mm water. The cotton with mulching film was set as control (CK) with irrigation frequency of 8 times and irrigation quota of 45 mm per time during the flowering and boll-setting stage in both years. The plant architecture map of each cotton developmental stage was collected, and the actual yield and corresponding traits were evaluated. [Result] The statistical analysis of the boll formation rate at each fruit node was conducted on the horizontal and vertical directions during the boll-opening stage. The results showed that the number of bolls and the boll-formation rate of the upper fruit branches and peripheral bolls of W4 were lower than those of other treatments. And the boll number and boll-formation rate are similar in W6 and W8. In 2021, the number of bolls and the rate of boll formation in W7 were higher than those in W4, W6, and W8. The result of the shedding rate of bolls in the boll-opening period showed that the shedding rate of the peripheral bolls and the upper fruit branches were higher in two years, but the specific site of the shedding bolls and the shedding rate varies among treatments. The analysis of yield components showed that W7 had significantly higher number of bolls per unit area, higher boll weight, and higher seed cotton yield than W4, but were not significantly different from CK. And the water use efficiency of W7 was higher than that of W6 and W8. [Conclusion] Application of extreme high or low irrigation frequency and irrigation quota during the flowering and boll-setting period affect the number of bolls, spatio-temporal distribution of cotton bolls, shedding rate as well as boll weight of filmless cotton, which in turn affects yield. In this study, the W7 treatment can provide a reference for the designing of the irrigation system for filmless cotton production in Southern Xinjiang. In detail, the recommended irrigation frequency is 2 times in the squaring period with the irrigation interval of 10 days, 7 times irrigation in the flowering and boll-setting period with the irrigation interval of 7 days, and the irrigation quota in total is 573 mm.

    棉花陆海渐渗系次级分离群体产量和纤维品质QTL定位
    杨芮,李鹏涛,肖向辉,李俊文,龚举武,刘爱英,巩万奎,商海红,葛群,卢全伟,潘境涛,邓晓英,范森淼,石玉真,袁有禄
    棉花学报. 2022, 34(5):  401-415.  doi:10.11963/cs20200073
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    【目的】利用海岛棉渐渗系挖掘与产量和纤维品质性状相关的优异基因/数量性状位点(quantitative trait loci, QTL),为培育高产且纤维品质优异的棉花品种提供有用的信息。【方法】利用优异陆海渐渗系材料MBI9626与高产、适应性广的陆地棉品种中棉所36构建了包含152个单株的BC6F2次级分离群体,以筛选的109个简单重复序列(simple sequence repeat, SSR)标记检测亲本和群体的基因型,结合多年多代的表型数据,定位产量和纤维品质性状的QTL。【结果】基因型分析表明,MBI9626中中棉所36背景的比例为94.8%。在BC6F2、BC6F2:3和BC6F2:4群体中共检测到28个与产量、纤维品质性状相关的QTL,分布在6条染色体上。其中:产量相关的QTL有16个,解释2.25%~6.14%的表型变异,包括6个多年多环境稳定的QTL;纤维品质相关的QTL有12个,解释2.49%~12.30%的表型变异,包括2个多年多环境稳定的QTL。新检测到19个QTL,包括多环境稳定的5个。在D3染色体上鉴定到1个包含6个QTL的QTL簇,该区间包含233个基因,通过基因本体(gene ontology, GO)聚类和KEGG(Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes)通路富集分析,并结合TM-1的转录组数据,筛选出6个可能与纤维发育相关的基因:GH_D03G1428GH_D03G1466GH_D03G1518GH_D03G1570GH_D03G1586GH_D03G1640。【结论】本研究检测到28个与棉花产量、纤维品质相关的QTL,为进一步精细定位、候选基因克隆和分子标记辅助选择奠定基础。


    [Objective] The aim of this study is to explore the elite gene/quantitative trait loci (QTL) resources of yield and fiber quality, and to provide useful information for developing cotton varieties with high yield and excellent fiber quality. [Methods] A superior chromosome segment substitution line MBI9626, and a high-yield and wide-adaptability upland cotton CCRI 36 were selected to construct a secondary segregation population BC6F2 which contained 152 individuals. And 109 selected simple sequence repeat(SSR) markers were used to genotyping parents and the population, and QTL mapping for yield and fiber quality traits was conducted based on genotype data and phenotype data. [Results] Genotyping resutts showed MBI9626 recovered to 94.8% of the genetic background of CCRI 36. A total of 28 QTLs related to yield and fiber quality traits were detected in BC6F2, BC6F2:3, and BC6F2:4 populations, which were distributed on 6 chromosomes. Among them, there are 16 QTLs related to yield, accounting for 2.25%-6.14% of the phenotypic variation, including 6 stable QTLs; 12 QTLs related to quality traits, accounting for 2.49%-12.30% of the phenotypic variation, including 2 stable QTLs. There were 19 newly discovered QTLs, including 5 stable QTLs. And 233 genes were identified in a QTL cluster with 6 QTLs on D3 chromosome. Based on gene ontology (GO) cluster and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) analysis and TM-1 transcriptome data, 6 candidate genes were screened to be involved in fiber development, namely GH_D03G1428、GH_D03G1466, GH_D03G1518, GH_D03G1570, GH_D03G1586, and GH_D03G1640. [Conclusion] Twenty-eight stable QTLs related to cotton yield and fiber quality were identified and would lay a solid foundation for fine mapping and cloning of candidates genes and marker assisted selection.

    夏直播棉成铃时间分布与产量的关系
    李显恩,马学峰,张钊,杨丽荣,吕娜,姚晓芬,邱深,张贵粉,杨国正
    棉花学报. 2022, 34(5):  416-429.  doi:10.11963/cs20210074
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    【目的】在长江流域棉区夏直播种植模式下,研究不同棉花品种的成铃时间及其与产量的关系,明确该模式下棉花的最佳成铃时间及适宜的品种,为夏直播模式的推广提供理论依据。【方法】选用3个南方品种(晶华棉116、ZD2040和华棉3097)和2个北方品种(中棉425和中棉619),采用随机区组设计,于2019―2020年在华中农业大学试验农场开展大田试验,采用株式图记录成铃过程,考察不同棉花品种的生育时期、棉铃时间分布、干物质累积动态、产量及其构成因素。【结果】在夏直播种植模式下,2019年棉花生育期在90 d左右,出苗后44~63 d为现蕾高峰期,出苗后63~82 d为成铃高峰期,出苗后92~118 d为棉铃吐絮高峰期;由于降水量较大和低温的影响,2020年棉花生育期较2019年延长了23~40 d,棉蕾、花、吐絮棉铃数量快速增长期的平均起始时间分别推迟了19 d、17 d、34 d,籽棉产量和皮棉产量均明显降低。2年平均来看,南方品种华棉3097拔秆期库器官干物质积累量和棉株干物质积累量较其他品种分别高9.6%~43.0%和14.7%~54.3%,皮棉产量较其他品种高12.5%~22.6%。相关性分析表明,皮棉产量与棉铃数量快速增长期及库器官干物质快速累积期的起始时间和持续时间均呈显著正相关关系。【结论】在夏直播种植模式下,晚伏桃占比最大,其次为早秋桃。此外,南方品种华棉3097在不同气象条件下的产量均表现较好,更适合在长江流域棉区种植。


    [Objective] This study aimed to explore the optimal boll-setting period of summer direct seeding mode and suitable cultivars in the Yangtze River Valley by studying the relationship between the boll temporal distribution and yield of different cotton cultivars, so as to provide a theoretical basis for the promotion of this mode. [Method] The experiment was conducted in the farm of Huazhong Agricultural University in 2019 and 2020. A random block design was used with 3 cotton cultivars (JH116, ZD2040 and HM3097) from Southern region and 2 cultivars (Z425 and Z619) from Northern region. Plant-mapping was used to investigate boll temporal distribution; cotton growth stages, dry matter accumulation, yield and its components were also investigated. [Result] Under the summer direct seeding mode, the cotton growth period was about 90 in 2019. The peak squaring period is about 44-63 d after emergence, the peak boll-setting period is about 63-82 d after emergence, and the peak boll-opening period is about 92-118 d after emergence. In 2020, due to the high precipitation and the low temperature, cotton growth period was extended by 23-40 d, and the start time of rapid growth period of the number of buds, flowers and open bolls was delayed by 19 d, 17 d, and 34 d, respectively; seed cotton yield and lint yield decreased obviously. On average of the two years, the sink biomass and plant biomass of cultivar HM3097 at the plant removal stage were 9.6%-43.0% and 14.7%-54.3% higher than other cultivars, respectively, and its lint yield was 12.5%-22.6% higher than other cultivars. Correlation analysis showed that lint yield was significantly positively correlated with the initial time and the duration of rapid accumulation period of cotton boll number and sink dry matter accumulation. [Conclusion] Under summer direct seeding mode, the proportion of late summer bolls is the largest, followed by early autumn bolls. Cultivar HM3097 from Southern region is more suitable for cultivating in the Yangtze River Valley due to its better yield performance under different weather conditions.

    机采棉模式下麦棉两熟配置方式对作物产量和棉花早熟性的影响
    王国平,刘连涛,雷亚平,冯璐,张永江,王占彪,李小飞,李亚兵,李存东
    棉花学报. 2022, 34(5):  430-442.  doi:10.11963/cs20220028
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    【目的】研究黄河流域棉区机采模式下麦棉配置方式对麦棉产量和棉花早熟性的影响,为麦棉配置方式下的全程机械化管理提供技术支撑。【方法】在76 cm机采棉标准行距的麦棉两熟制下,在河南安阳开展了2年田间试验(2017/2018和2018/2019年度),采用中棉所79和中棉所50,设置W2C1(2行小麦1行棉花)、W3C1(3行小麦1行棉花)和W6C2(6行小麦2行棉花)3种麦棉配置方式,比较和分析了小麦和棉花产量及其构成因素、小麦边行效应,以及棉花生物量,伏前桃、伏桃、秋桃比例,霜前花率和纤维品质主要指标等。【结果】W3C1的小麦产量显著高于W2C1和W6C2,分别高16.2%~43.3%和28.4%~52.3%;有效穗数分别高出29.2%~47.5%和34.9%~53.6%,差异达到显著水平;但W3C1小麦边行与内行的产量(2019年)、单位面积有效穗数(2018年)等指标的差异均显著低于W6C2。不同配置方式间棉花纤维长度、断裂比强度和马克隆值等指标差异均不显著。2年试验中,中棉所50的籽棉产量和收获指数在3种配置方式间均无显著差异,但中棉所79在W3C1下收获指数低于W6C2和W2C1。W3C1配置下,中棉所50较中棉所79节枝比低,生殖生长快,伏桃占比高,壳铃比低,收获指数高,霜前花率高出38.7~54.2百分点;该配置的土地当量比达1.689~1.697,显著高于其他配置方式。【结论】黄河流域麦棉两熟模式下采用W3C1配置与短季棉中棉所50搭配,麦棉系统的土地当量比高,棉花霜前花率高,小麦群体一致性好,增产显著;该配置方式有助于提高麦棉机械化管理水平和种植效益。


    [Objective] The purpose of this study is to study the influence of cotton-wheat cropping modes on yield and cotton maturity in the Yellow River Basin, to provide technical support for the whole-process mechanization management under the machine-harvested cotton mode. [Method] The experiments were carried out in Anyang, Henan in 2017/2018 and 2018/2019 seasons including 6 treatments with 2 cotton varieties (ZM50, ZM79) and 3 cropping modes, W6C2 (6 rows wheat and 2 rows cotton), W3C1 (3 rows wheat and 1 row cotton) and W2C1 (2 rows wheat and 1 row cotton) under the machine-harvested cotton row space (76 cm) cultivation. Some key indexes such as the wheat yield and side effects, and cotton biomass accumulation, the time distribution of cotton bolls, percentage of seed-cotton yield before frost, and fiber quality were compared and analyzed. [Result] The wheat yield was significantly higher in the mode W3C1 than the mode W2C1 and W6C2 by 16.2%-43.3% and 28.4%-52.3% respectively; the number of effective panicles significantly increased by 29.2%-47.5% and 34.9%-53.6%, respectively; however, the indexes such as wheat yield(2019) and effective panicles per hectare(2018) of W3C1 were significantly lower than W6C2. No significant differences in fiber length, breaking tenacity, and micronaire were found among different cropping modes. There was no significant difference in the seed cotton yield and harvest index(HI) of ZM50 under different modes,while the seed cotton yield and HI of ZM79 in the mode W3C1 in 2018 was lower than that in W6C2 and W2C1. Under W3C1 mode, short season cotton ZM50, compared with ZM79, showed an earlier maturity performance, such as a lower node/branch ratio, and faster reproductive growth, higher ratio of the middle season bolls between July 16 and August 15, lower cotton boll shell ratio, and higher percentage of seed-cotton yield before frost by 38.7%-54.2%; moreover, land equivalent ratio (LER) of this mode is over 1.689-1.697, significantly higher than other modes. [Conclusion] It is suggested that under the machine-harvested cotton row space in the Yellow River Basin, adopting the short-season cotton ZM50 and mode W3C1 can obtain a higher LER and percentage of seed-cotton yield before frost, and is conducive to increasing crop uniformity and yield of wheat. So, taking this configuration for wheat-cotton cropping in the Yellow River Basin is helpful to improve the mechanized management level of the crops and the planting benefit.

    病虫草害研究
    贝莱斯芽孢杆菌EBV02对棉花黄萎病的防治作用及机理
    白红燕,赵丽红,蒲丹丹,冯自力,魏锋,冯鸿杰,顾爱星,朱荷琴,彭军,张亚林
    棉花学报. 2022, 34(5):  443-457.  doi:10.11963/cs20220019
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    【目的】筛选鉴定棉花黄萎病的高效生防菌,并明确其防治机理,为防治棉花黄萎病提供技术支持。【方法】以本实验室前期筛选获得的一株拮抗棉花黄萎病菌的内生细菌菌株EBV02为材料,通过形态特征、生理生化特征和分子生物学分析鉴定其菌种;通过室内抑菌试验、温室试验、大田试验和诱导抗性试验,测定其对棉花黄萎病的防治效果;通过测定棉花叶片活性氧、胼胝质积累量和防御相关基因表达量,分析该菌作用机理。【结果】形态观察和分子生物学鉴定EBV02为贝莱斯芽孢杆菌(Bacillus velezensis),对峙培养、对扣培养结果显示,EBV02对大丽轮枝菌Vd080菌丝生长的抑制率分别为63.27%和59.83%;EBV02培养液对Vd080产孢和微菌核萌发的抑制率分别为31.90%和45.95%。温室试验中EBV02对棉花黄萎病的最高防治效果为68.33%,且可以显著促进棉苗的生长。大田试验中,EBV02培养液喷雾对棉花黄萎病的防治效果为37.25%,此外,EBV02培养液浸种、灌根和喷雾处理使籽棉质量和皮棉质量分别增加8.34%和8.26%、3.38%和5.60%、7.04%和7.06%,具有良好的防病和增产效果。诱导抗性试验中,EBV02诱导了棉花叶片活性氧爆发和胼胝质积累。基因表达量检测结果显示,EBV02诱导棉花叶片中PODPPOPALPR10JAR1等防御相关基因的上调表达,增强了棉花抵抗大丽轮枝菌的能力。【结论】EBV02通过抑制大丽轮枝菌生长、激活棉花系统抗病性,增强棉花对黄萎病的抵御能力,且能提高棉花产量,具有良好的生防潜力。


    [Objective] The purpose of this study was to screen and identify a strain of highly efficient biocontrol bacteria against cotton Verticillium wilt, and to clarify its control mechanism, so as to provide technical support for the disease control. [Method] An endophytic bacterial strain EBV02 against Verticillium dahliae was screened in our laboratory, the species were identified by morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics and molecular biological analysis, and its control effect on cotton Verticillium wilt was determined by the indoor bacteriostatic test, greenhouse test, field test, and induced resistance test. The control mechanism of EBV02 was analyzed by measuring the burst of reactive oxygen species, accumulation of callose, and expression of defense-related genes in cotton leaves. [Result] EBV02 was identified as the Bacillus velezensis through morphological observation and molecular biological analysis. The results of confrontation culture and plate-to-plate culture showed that the inhibition rates of EBV02 on mycelium growth of V. dahliae Vd080 were 63.27% and 59.83%, respectively. The inhibition rates of EBV02 on Vd080 sporulation and microsclerotia germination were 31.90% and 45.95%, respectively. In the greenhouse experiment, the highest control effect of EBV02 on cotton Verticillium wilt was 68.33%, and could significantly promote the growth of cotton seedlings. In the field experiment, the control effect of EBV02 fermentation broth spraying on cotton Verticillium wilt was 37.25%. In addition, seed cotton yield and lint yield with EBV02 treatment by seed soaking, root irrigation and spraying of fermentation broth were significantly increased by 8.34% and 8.26%, 3.38% and 5.60%, 7.04% and 7.06%, respectively. In the induced resistance test, EBV02 induced the burst of reactive oxygen species and the accumulation of callose in cotton leaves. The results of gene expression showed that EBV02 induced upregulation of defense-related genes such as POD, PPO, PAL, PR10, and JAR1 in cotton leaves, which enhanced the resistance of cotton to V. dahliae. [Conclusion] EBV02 has a good biocontrol potential of inhibiting the growth of V. dahliae, activating the systemic disease resistance, enhancing the cotton resistance to Verticillium wilt, and increasing the yield in cotton.

    专题与述评
    棉花熟性及其评价指标和方法
    冯璐,董合忠
    棉花学报. 2022, 34(5):  458-470.  doi:10.11963/cs20210056
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    熟性是作物生长发育快慢和成熟收获早晚的综合表现,通常用播种到成熟收获的生育期或生命周期来表示,是品种生态适应性的重要标志。选用熟性适宜的棉花品种是实现棉花正常成熟、高产优质和及时收获的重要前提和保障,而准确判断和评价棉花熟性则是棉花栽培管理和遗传改良的重要依据。棉花具有无限生长习性,其熟性判断和评价较为复杂,迄今仍存争议。讨论明确了熟性的概念及其主要影响因素(遗传因素、环境因素和栽培措施),总结评述了基于生长特征(第一果枝节位、果枝发生速率和开花间隔、霜前花率等)、生育进程(生育时期、生理终止期、铃未吐絮的上部果枝数、早熟性指数等)以及综合分数的棉花熟性评价指标和方法,提出了创新完善熟性指标、建立健全熟性评价体系和创立创新熟性评价信息采集系统的意见和建议,以期为棉花轻简化机械化生产提供理论和技术支持。


    Crop maturity is the comprehensive performance reflection of crop growth, development and maturation. It is usually expressed by the growth period or life cycle from seedling emergence to harvest. It is also a critical indicator of crop ecological adaptability. The selection of cotton varieties with appropriate maturity is an important prerequisite to ensure normal maturity, high yield, superior fiber quality, and timely harvest. Accurate evaluation of cotton crop maturity is an important basis for cotton cultivation management and genetic improvement. Due to the indeterminate growth characteristic of cotton, the evaluation of cotton crop maturity is complicated, and there are still controversies so far. This manuscript clarifies the concept of cotton crop maturity, and discusses its main influencing factors (genetic factors, environmental factors, and cultivation measures), and reviews predictors and methods used for cotton crop maturity evaluation based on growth characteristics (the first fruit branch node, fruit branch occurrence speed and flowering time interval, pre-frost seed cotton rate, etc.), growth process (growth period, physiological termination period, the number of fruit branches above cracked boll, early maturity index, etc.) and the comprehensive index. In the end, the following suggestions have been given: enhancing the innovation of evaluation predictors for cotton crop maturity, establishment of the evaluation system for cotton crop maturity, and creation of an innovative information collection system, which will provide theoretical and technical support for cotton simplified and mechanized production.