欢迎访问《棉花学报》! 今天是

棉花学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (3): 198-214.doi: 10.11963/cs20210072

• 研究与进展 • 上一篇    下一篇

氮肥减量深施对油后直播棉花干物质与氮素积累、分配及产量的影响

李飞1(),郭莉莉1,赵瑞元1,尹凌洁2,王家珍3,李彩红1,何叔军1,梅正鼎1,*()   

  1. 1.湖南省棉花科学研究所,湖南 常德 415101
    2.湖南省农情研究分析中心,长沙 410005
    3.常德市鼎城区谢家铺镇农科站,湖南 常德 415126
  • 收稿日期:2021-12-10 出版日期:2022-05-15 发布日期:2022-08-08
  • 通讯作者: 梅正鼎 E-mail:taifeiya0821@163.com;739017796@qq.com
  • 作者简介:李飞(1985―),男, taifeiya0821@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划——化学肥料和农药减施增效综合技术研发重点专项(2017YFD0201901);国家现代农业产业技术体系(CARS-15-45)

Effects of increasing application depth and decreasing nitrogen rate on dry matter, nitrogen accumulation and distribution, and yield of direct seeding cotton after rape harvest

Li Fei1(),Guo Lili1,Zhao Ruiyuan1,Yin Lingjie2,Wang Jiazhen3,Li Caihong1,He Shujun1,Mei Zhengding1,*()   

  1. 1. Cotton Science Research Institute of Hunan Province, Changde,Hunan 415101, China
    2. Hunan Agricultural Situation Analysis and Research Center, Changsha, 410005, China
    3. Agricultural Science Station of Xiejiapu Town of Dingcheng District, Changde City, Changde, Hunan 415126, China
  • Received:2021-12-10 Online:2022-05-15 Published:2022-08-08
  • Contact: Mei Zhengding E-mail:taifeiya0821@163.com;739017796@qq.com

摘要:

【目的】研究洞庭湖植棉区油(菜)棉(花)轮作种植制度下,氮肥施用深度及用量对棉花干物质与氮素的积累、分配及产量的影响,为油后直播棉化肥减施增效提供依据。【方法】于2018年和2019年在湖南常德开展氮肥运筹试验,以湘FZ001为试验材料,设置15 cm和5 cm(H15、H5)2个施用深度,0、90、180、270和360 kg·hm-2纯氮(N0、N90、N180、N270、N360)5个施氮量。【结果】棉花氮素积累量与干物质积累量的变化趋势一致,积累动态均符合逻辑斯谛(logistic)模型;氮肥深施提高了棉株氮素和干物质的积累量及其在生殖器官中的分配比例;随着施氮量的增加,氮素、干物质积累量及其在生殖器官的分配比例均呈现先升高后下降的变化趋势;氮肥施用深度及用量互作下,氮素积累量在H15N270下取得最大值,氮素在生殖器官的分配比例、干物质积累量及其在生殖器官的分配比例均在H15N180下最大。从氮素和干物质积累特征值可以看出,棉花中氮素和干物质的累积与分配基本同步,其中氮素的平均快速积累期起始时间略早于干物质积累,说明棉花氮素吸收可能是干物质积累的基础和前提。H15比H5提高了氮肥的利用效率,同时氮肥表观利用率、农学利用率、偏生产力随施氮量提高均呈现下降趋势;H15N180处理可以获得较为理想的氮肥表观利用率、农学利用率、偏生产力和生产效率,籽棉产量最高。【结论】适量氮肥深施可以促使棉花高产。推荐本地区氮肥施用深度从常规的撒施或浅施5 cm提高到15 cm,施氮量从常规的270~300 kg·hm-2减少为180 kg·hm-2

关键词: 棉花; 施肥深度; 施氮量; 干物质; 氮素; 籽棉产量

Abstract:

[Objective] The effects of nitrogen application depth and amount on cotton dry matter and nitrogen accumulation, distribution and yield in rape-cotton rotation cropping system around Dongting Lake cotton planting region were studied, so as to provide a scientific basis for reducing the application and increasing the efficiency of chemical fertilizer of direct seeding cotton after harvesting rape. [Method] The nitrogen application experiment was carried out at Changde, Hunan Province in 2018 and 2019. A field experiment was conducted using Xiang FZ001 with the treatments of two nitrogen application depths (15 cm and 5 cm, marked by H15 and H5), and five nitrogen rates (0, 90, 180, 270 and 360 kg·hm-2, marked by N0, N90, N180, N270, N360, respectively). [Result] The trends of cotton nitrogen and dry matter accumulation were consistent, and the accumulation dynamics were in line with the logistic model. Deep application of nitrogen fertilizer increased the accumulation of nitrogen and dry matter in cotton plants and their distribution proportion in reproductive organs. With the increase of nitrogen application rate, the accumulation of nitrogen and dry matter and their distribution proportion in reproductive organs all showed a trend of increase at first and decrease afterward. Under the interaction of nitrogen application depth and amount, the accumulation of nitrogen was maximum under H15N270; the proportion of nitrogen distribution in reproductive organs, dry matter accumulation and its distribution proportion in reproductive organs were maximum under H15N180. From the characteristic values of nitrogen and dry matter accumulation, it could be seen that the accumulation and distribution of nitrogen and dry matter in cotton was basically sychronized, with the average rapid accumulation of nitrogen starting slightly earlier than that of dry matter accumulation, indicating that cotton nitrogen absorption was likely the basis and premise of dry matter accumulation. Compared with H5, H15 improved the utilization efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer, and the apparent utilization rate, agronomic utilization rate and biased productivity of nitrogen fertilizer decreased with the increase of nitrogen application rate. With the interaction of nitrogen application depth and amount, the H15N180 treatment could obtain desirable apparent utilization rate, agronomic utilization rate, biased productivity and production efficiency and highest seed cotton yield. [Conclusion] This study indicated that applying suitable nitrogen application rate and increasing fertilization depth could promote high yield. And it was recommended that the depth of nitrogen application should be increased from 5 cm to 15 cm,and the quantity should be reduced from 270-300 kg·hm-2 to 180 kg·hm-2 for the tested region.

Key words: cotton; fertilization depth; nitrogen rate; dry matter; nitrogen; seed cotton yield