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棉花学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (2): 137-150.doi: 10.11963/cs20200037

• 研究与进展 • 上一篇    下一篇

化肥减施和秸秆还田对土壤肥力、棉花养分吸收利用及产量的影响

卢合全(),唐薇*(),张冬梅,罗振,孔祥强,李振怀,徐士振,代建龙,李维江,辛承松*()   

  1. 山东省农业科学院经济作物研究所,济南 250100
  • 收稿日期:2020-05-04 出版日期:2022-03-15 发布日期:2022-07-19
  • 通讯作者: 唐薇 tangweijn@163.com; 辛承松 xin5306@126.com
  • 作者简介:卢合全(1978―),男,硕士,副研究员, hqlu780708@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    山东省重点研发计划项目(2019GNC106134);国家自然科学基金(31971857)

Effects of chemical fertilizer reduction and stalk returning on soil nutrients content, nutrient absorption and yield of cotton

Lu Hequan(), Tang Wei*(), Zhang Dongmei, Luo Zhen, Kong Xiangqiang, Li Zhenhuai, Xu Shizhen, Dai Jianlong, Li Weijiang, Xin Chengsong*()   

  1. Institute of Industrial Crops, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan 250100, China
  • Received:2020-05-04 Online:2022-03-15 Published:2022-07-19
  • Contact: Tang Wei tangweijn@163.com; Xin Chengsong xin5306@126.com

摘要:

【目的】 探明化肥减施和秸秆还田对土壤肥力、棉花养分吸收利用及产量的影响。【方法】 2016―2018年安排大田定位试验,设置6个处理:化肥常规用量(NPK)、秸秆还田(S)、化肥常规用量加秸秆还田(NPKS)、化肥常规用量减施25%加秸秆还田(0.75NPKS)、缓控释肥常规用量加秸秆还田(CRFS)和缓控释肥常规用量减施25%加秸秆还田(0.75CRFS),以NPK作对照。【结果】 连续3年试验,与NPK比较,NPKS和CRFS的土壤有机质、碱解氮、有效磷和速效钾含量均逐年增加;0.75NPKS和0.75CRFS的土壤有机质含量逐年增加,土壤有效磷含量逐年减少,而土壤碱解氮、速效钾与NPK差异不显著。NPKS、CRFS、0.75NPKS和0.75CRFS的植株氮、磷吸收量和表观利用率逐年增加,其中2018年磷吸收量较NPK分别增加6.17%、8.01%、8.88%和7.94%,差异显著,而3年试验中4个秸秆还田处理的钾吸收量与NPK处理差异均不显著。始絮期NPKS和CRFS的主茎倒二叶SPAD值和净光合速率呈现逐年增加趋势,0.75NPKS、0.75CRFS的主茎倒二叶SPAD值和净光合速率与NPK差异不显著。3年内,NPKS、CRFS的籽棉产量较NPK有所提高但差异不显著,0.75NPKS、0.75CRFS籽棉产量较NPK略低,但差异不显著。连续3年试验,NPKS、0.75NPKS、CRFS和0.75CRFS处理的单位面积铃数、铃重和衣分与NPK均无显著差异。【结论】 3年内化肥减施25%配合秸秆还田能够提高化肥表观利用率且棉花不减产,为避免长期减施化肥导致土壤有效磷含量下降,须适当补充磷肥。

关键词: 棉花; 秸秆还田; 减量施肥; 土壤养分; 营养吸收; 产量

Abstract:

[Objective] This study aimed to clarify the effects of chemical fertilizers reduction and stalk returning on soil nutrients content, nutrient absorption and yield of cotton. [Method] A three-year field experiment was conducted from 2016 to 2018. Six treatments were included: traditional chemical fertilizer (NPK) as control, stalk returning (S), traditional chemical fertilizer plus stalk returning (NPKS), chemical fertilizer reduction of 25% plus stalk returning (0.75NPKS), controlled-release fertilizer plus stalk returning (CRFS), and controlled-release fertilizer reduction of 25% plus stalk returning (0.75CRFS). [Result] Within the three-year experiment, the organic matter content, alkaline nitrogen content, available phosphorus content, and potassium content in soil were increased in NPKS and CRFS. Both 0.75NPKS and 0.75CRFS treatments increased the soil organic matter content, and reduced available phosphorus content year by year, and had no significant effect on alkaline nitrogen and available potassium content compared with NPK. From 2016 to 2018, nitrogen absorption and phosphorus absorption and apparent recovery efficiency in the treatments of NPKS, CRFS, 0.75NPKS and 0.75CRFS were increased year by year,while there was no significant difference in potassium absorption compared with NPK. In 2018, phosphorus absorptions in these four fertilizer plus stalk returning treatments were 6.17%, 8.01%, 8.88% and 7.94% significantly higher than that of NPK, respectively. At initial boll opening stage, the SPAD values and net photosynthetic rates of the second leaf from the top in NPKS and CRFS treatments showed a rising trend year by year, that those of 0.75NPKS and 0.75CRFS treatments had no significant differences compared with NPK. Within 3 years, the seed cotton yield of NPKS and CRFS were not significantly higher than that of NPK, and the seed cotton yield of 0.75NPKS and 0.75CRFS were slightly fewer compared with NPK without significant differences. The boll number per unit area, boll weight and lint percentage in the treatments of NPK, NPKS, 0.75NPKS, CRFS and 0.75CRFS were approximately the same in every year. [Conclusion] Chemical fertilizer reduction of 25% and stalk returning can increase the fertilizer apparent recovery efficiency without influence on the cotton yield in the three-year experiment, but it is necessary to supply phosphorus fertilizer properly in long-term fertilizer reduction application.

Key words: cotton; stalk returning; fertilizer reduction; soil nutrients; nutrient absorption; yield