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棉花学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (1): 53-61.doi: 10.11963/1002-7807.xjzlz.20171201

• 研究与进展 • 上一篇    下一篇

种植密度和缩节胺互作对棉花株型及产量的调控效应

邢晋1,张思平2,赵新华2,闫贞贞1,魏然1,张立祯1   

  1. 1. 中国农业大学资源与环境学院,北京 100089;2. 中国农业科学院棉花研究所,河南 安阳 455000
  • 收稿日期:2017-09-18 出版日期:2018-01-15 发布日期:2018-01-15
  • 通讯作者: zhanglizhen@cau.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:邢晋(1994―),女,硕士研究生, xingjinmarch@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    农业部“948”项目(2011-G19);国家现代农业产业技术体系棉花产业体系(CARS-18-18)

Interaction of Plant Density with Mepiquat Chloride Affects Plant Architecture and Yield in Cotton

Xing Jin1, Zhang Siping2, Zhao Xinhua2, Yan Zhenzhen1, Wei Ran1, Zhang Lizhen1*   

  1. 1. College of Resources and Environmental Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100089, China; 2. Institute of Cotton Research of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Anyang, Henan 455000, China
  • Received:2017-09-18 Online:2018-01-15 Published:2018-01-15

摘要: 【目的】探讨种植密度和缩节胺互作对棉花结构与功能的调控效应。【方法】在河南安阳进行了鲁棉研28号种植密度和缩节胺互作试验,种植密度设置了1.5万、4.5万、7.5万、10.5万、13.5万株·hm-2 等5个水平,缩节胺用量设置了0,195,390 g·hm-2  3个水平。【结果】提高棉花种植密度,节间长度和株高增加,果枝倾角、主茎叶倾角减小,叶片和茎干物质分配系数减小,导致个体干物质积累量减少。增大缩节胺用量,可减小棉花果枝方位夹角、株高,增加果枝倾角、叶长和叶柄长,铃干物质分配系数呈先升高后降低趋势。密度和缩节胺对果枝夹角、果枝倾角、株高、叶和果实的干物质分配系数有显著的交互作用,对棉花空间成铃结构存在互补效应。在缩节胺用量为390 g·hm-2、种植密度10.5万株·hm-2时,棉花群体干物质积累量达到最大值14 362 kg·hm-2,籽棉产量最高(3 257.4 kg·hm-2)。【结论】综合产量和品质效应,密度保持在7.5万~10.5万株·hm-2、缩节胺用量在195~390 g·hm-2时棉花均可获得较好的经济效益。研究结果对指导黄河流域棉花轻简化栽培和培育机采棉最佳株型有较重要的意义。

关键词: 棉花; 密度; 缩节胺; 生长形态

Abstract: [Objective] The effect of planting density and mepiquat chloride (DPC) on cotton plant architecture, growth, yield, and quality at Anyang City, Henan Province, China, was studied. [Method] Field experiments with cotton variety Lumianyan 28 were conducted with five planting densities (15 000, 45 000, 75 000, 105 000, and 135 000 plants·hm-2) and application of DPC at three concentrations (0, 195, and 390 g·hm-2). [Result] Increasing cotton plant density resulted in increased internode length and plant height but also caused the decrease of inclination of fruiting branches and leaves as well as elevated dry matter allocation to leaves and fruiting branches, which led to a decrease in dry matter accumulation. Application of DPC reduced the azimuth angle of fruiting branches and plant height, but increased the insertion angle of fruiting branches with the main stem, leaf length, and petiole length. Planting density and DPC treatment showed a significant interaction on fruiting branch insertion angle, plant height, stem diameter, and dry matter allocation to fruits and leaves. The interaction of DPC and planting density had a complementary effect on the spatial distribution of cotton-yielding bolls. The final dry matter was highest (14 362 kg·hm-2) at the planting density of 105 000 plant·hm-2 and DPC application of 390 g·hm-2, which resulted in the highest seed yield (3 257 kg·hm-2). [Conclusion] For maximization of cotton yield and quality, a plant density of 75 000 to 105 000 plants·hm-2 and DPC application of 195 to 390 g·hm-2 in the Yellow River cotton-producing region is recommended. The results may help to optimize labor-saving cotton management and to generate a plant architecture suitable for mechanical harvesting in the Yellow River cotton-producing region.

Key words: Gossypium hirsutum; plant density; mepiquat chloride (DPC); growth; yield formation

中图分类号: 
  • S562.04