欢迎访问《棉花学报》! 今天是

棉花学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (3): 269-279.doi: 10.11963/1002-7807.yjkj.20210419

• 研究简报 • 上一篇    下一篇

海岛棉新海35花药发育及花粉受精的研究

杨静1,2(),马益赞1,王为然2,闵玲1,宁新民2,孔杰2,*()   

  1. 1.华中农业大学作物遗传改良国家重点实验室,武汉 430070
    2.新疆农业科学院经济作物研究所,乌鲁木齐 830091
  • 收稿日期:2019-11-08 出版日期:2021-05-15 发布日期:2021-06-03
  • 通讯作者: *孔杰 E-mail:hzjingy@126.com;lingmin@mail.hzau.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:杨静 (1989―),女,硕士, hzjingy@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31660411);国家自然科学基金(31460306);新疆农科院重点项目前期预研专项(xjkcpy-001);新疆农科院青年科技骨干创新能力培养(xjnkq-2019008);国家现代农业产业技术体系棉花产业技术体系(CARS-15-09);转基因专项(2016ZX08005-005);重点研发计划(2017YFD0101604)

Research on anther development and fertilization of Gossypium barbadense L. Xinhai 35

Yang Jing1,2(),Ma Yizan1,Wang Weiran2,Min Ling1,Ning Xinmin2,Kong Jie2,*()   

  1. 1. National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
    2. Institution of Commercial Crop, Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural Science, Urumqi 830091, China
  • Received:2019-11-08 Online:2021-05-15 Published:2021-06-03
  • Contact: *Kong Jie E-mail:hzjingy@126.com;lingmin@mail.hzau.edu.cn

摘要:

【目的】为建立海岛棉发育过程中花蕾长度与花药发育时期的关系。【方法】以海岛棉新海35为研究对象,采用改良的半薄切片和甲苯胺蓝染色技术,对不同生长时期花蕾的花药进行切片观察,明确花蕾长度与花药发育时期的对应关系。【结果】通过形态观察发现,在海岛棉的花发育过程不同时期花蕾的萼片、花瓣和花药的形态、颜色、大小以及花丝和柱头的长度出现明显变化。切片观察发现,从花芽出现到花药开裂,经历花原基的形成、花药原基的出现、花粉母细胞形成、四分体时期、绒毡层降解、减数分裂、花药开裂等14个发育时期。新海35花蕾长度5~6 mm、7~8 mm、8~9 mm和11~14 mm分别对应花药发育中的花粉母细胞形成期、四分体时期、小孢子释放期和绒毡层降解时期,也是成花过程中尤为关键的4个时期。通过对花粉萌发、花粉管伸长、受精过程、胚乳的发育等进行观察,明晰了海岛棉花粉成熟到完成受精再到纤维发育所需的具体时间和详细过程。【结论】海岛棉各个时期花蕾的表型与陆地棉不同,且花蕾大小及花药颜色随着花药细胞发育而变化,并伴随着细胞内部的代谢过程及正常发育所需物质的转换;通过花蕾大小及表型可以判定海岛棉花药发育时期。花粉成熟后,花粉的萌发、花粉管的伸长、双受精及胚乳发育分别发生在授粉后的0.5~1 h、8 h、24 h和50 h。

关键词: 海岛棉; 花药发育; 细胞结构; 半薄切片; 受精

Abstract:

[Objective] The study aims to establish the relationship between flower bud length and anther development in sea-island cotton. [Method] Anther development with different lengths of flower buds in Gossypium barbadense L. Xinhai 35 were observed by semi-thin section and toluidine blue staining. [Results] The color, shape, and size of sepals, petals, anthers, the lengths of filaments and stigmas changed with the development of flower buds in sea-island cotton. From flower buds development to anther dehiscence, the process have 14 stages including flower primordia formation, anther primordia occurrence, microspore mother cells formation, tetrad stage, tapetum degradation, meiosis, and anther dehiscence. At the pollen mother cell formation stage, tetrad stage, the stage of microspore release, and tapetum degradation, the bud length are 5-6 mm, 7-8 mm, 8-9 mm and 11-14 mm of Gossypium barbadense L. Xinhai 35, respectively. They are four key stages in the process of flowering. The whole process of fertilization including pollen germination, pollen tube elongation, fertilization and endosperm development were observed and clarified. [Conclusion] The morphology of flower bud at different stages in sea-island cotton are different from upland cotton. The size of flower bud and the color changed with the development of anther cells. At the same time, metabolic process happened and some substances were transported in normal cell development. According to the morphology of flower bud, sea-island cotton developing periods can be determined. After pollen maturation, pollen germination, pollen tube elongation, double fertilization and endosperm development occurred at 0.5-1 h, 8 h, 24 h and 50 h after pollination, respectively.

Key words: Gossypium barbadense L.; anther development; cell structure; semi-thin section; fertilization