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棉花学报 ›› 2011, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (1): 69-74.

• 研究与进展 • 上一篇    下一篇

新疆连作、轮作棉田可培养的土壤微生物区系及活性分析

韩 剑,张静文,徐文修,罗 明*,吴莉莉   

  1. 新疆农业大学农学院,乌鲁木齐 830052
  • 收稿日期:2010-05-20 出版日期:2011-01-15 发布日期:2011-01-15
  • 通讯作者: luomingxjau@yahoo.com.cn
  • 作者简介:韩 剑(1983-),男,助教, hjwjyh@sina.com
  • 基金资助:

    新疆科技厅科技攻关项目(2001BA507A-10),农业部公益性行业科研专项(nyhyzx07-005),新疆农业大学校长基金

Dynamics Analysis of Culturable Soil Microflora and Microbial Activity in Continuous and Rotation Cropping Systems of Xinjiang Cotton

HAN Jian, ZHANG Jing-wen, XU Wen-xiu, LUO Ming*, WU Li-li   

  1. Agronomy Faculty, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi 830052, China
  • Received:2010-05-20 Online:2011-01-15 Published:2011-01-15

摘要: 研究了新疆连作、轮作棉田土壤可培养微生物区系及活性变化。结果表明,棉花多年连作造成土壤中可培养微生物数量减少,连作6~8年、9~12年、大于13年的棉田与连作小于5年的棉田相比,土壤微生物总量分别下降了40.2%,46.7%,52.4%。连作超过5年后,土壤微生物菌群结构逐渐从高肥的“细菌型”向低肥的“真菌型”转化,细菌/真菌(B/F)和放线菌/真菌(A/F)比值均降低,拮抗菌减少,病原菌积累。氮素生理群氨化细菌、硝化细菌、好气性自生固氮菌数量下降,反硝化细菌数量增加。连作还导致土壤呼吸强度、纤维素分解强度下降,微生物活性降低。连作棉田与草木樨、番茄、春麦、玉米倒茬轮作能使土壤微生物数量明显增长,有益于调节菌群平衡, 提高微生物活性,固氮菌数量呈现显著增长。不同轮作作物的效应不同,以草木樨、番茄的效应更为突出。

关键词: 棉花; 种植制度; 可培养微生物; 微生物活性

Abstract: Variation of culturable soil microflora and microbial activity were investigated in continuous and rotation cropping cotton field in Xinjiang. The results showed that culturable microbial population gradually decreased with long-term continuous cropping of cotton. Compared with 5 years continous cropping, the total quantity of soil microbes in 6~8 years, 9~12 years and more than 13 years continuous cropping, decreased by 40.2%, 46.7%, 52.4%,respectively. After more than  5 years continuous cropping, the structure of the soil microbial community transformed from rich nutrition bacteria type to lower nutrition fungi type, the ratio of bacteria to fungi and actinomycetes to fungi decreased significantly. The amount of nitrogen physiological communities such as ammonifying bacteria, nitrobacteria and aerobic nitrogen-fixing bacteria decreased, while denitrifying bacteria increased. Moreover, continuous cropping resulted in soil respiration intensity and cellulolytic activity reducing. Contrary to continuous cropping, under the cotton/melilotus suavena, tomato, spring wheat or corn rotation systems were  most beneficial for increasing the total quantity of soil micro-organism, improving  the capability of soil microbial activity, adjusting the balance of microbial community. Also there was substantial increasement in the number of azotobacteria. The effects of different rotation modes were different, the benefits of cotton-tomato and cotton-melilotus suavena rotation were more obvious.

Key words: cotton; cropping system; culturable microbial; microbial activity

中图分类号: 
  • S154.3