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棉花学报
2022年 第34卷 第3期
刊出日期:2022-05-15
  
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    研究与进展
    GhEIN3基因对棉花枯萎病胁迫响应的功能分析
    赵曾强,张析,李潇玲,张薇
    棉花学报. 2022, 34(3):  173-186.  doi:10.11963/cs20210046
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    【目的】乙烯(ethylene, ET)不敏感蛋白3(ethylene-insensitive 3, EIN3)/EIN3-like(EIL)家族基因是乙烯通路中的关键基因,参与植物生物胁迫响应。探究其功能可为解析陆地棉对枯萎病菌的响应机理提供依据。【方法】从枯萎病菌诱导棉花根部基因表达谱数据中筛选并从TM-1基因组数据库中鉴定获得EIN3/EIL基因家族的GhEIN3基因,利用生物信息学、实时荧光定量聚合酶链式反应技术和病毒诱导的基因沉默(virus-induced gene silencing, VIGS)技术分别分析基因序列、不同处理下的表达特征及GhEIN3基因在棉花抗病过程中的作用。【结果】GhEIN3基因(Genbank登录号:KY744279)开放阅读框为1 842 bp,编码的氨基酸序列中含有典型的EIN3蛋白结构域。枯萎病菌胁迫和不同外源激素ET、水杨酸(salicylic acid, SA)和茉莉酸(jasmonic acid, JA)处理后,该基因受枯萎病菌胁迫和ET诱导上调表达,而受SA和JA诱导下调表达;当GhEIN3基因沉默后,对沉默植株进行枯萎病菌接菌试验,结果显示,与对照相比,沉默GhEIN3基因的株系更感病;基因表达量测定结果表明,与对照比较,沉默株系中病程相关基因PR1PR2PR4的表达量均下降,乙烯响应因子基因ERF1和1-氨基环丙烷-1-羧酸氧化酶基因ACO的表达量下降,而PR5基因的表达量上升。【结论】从陆地棉中鉴定出的EIN3/EIL家族基因GhEIN3能够响应枯萎病菌和外源激素ET、SA、JA诱导,结合枯萎病菌、ET、SA与JA诱导后GhEIN3基因表达情况,以及枯萎病接种试验和VIGS结果认为,GhEIN3基因在棉花抗枯萎病的过程中起积极作用。


    [Objective] Ethylene (ET) insensitivity protein 3 (EIN3)/EIN3-like (EIL) family genes are key genes in ethylene pathway, which are involved in the biological stress response of plants. Its function was studied to provide a basis for analyzing the response mechanism of upland cotton to Fusarium wilt. [Method] GhEIN3 of EIN3/EIL gene family were selected from TM-1 genome database based on the data of gene expression profile from root infected with cotton Fusarium wilt in our laboratory. The gene coding protein and related sequence information were analyzed by bioinformatics methods, and the expression pattern of GhEIN3 in Fusarium wilt and different hormone treatments were analyzed by real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The role of GhEIN3 in disease resistance was preliminarily analyzed by virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) technique. [Result] A new gene GhEIN3 was isolated from upland cotton (Genbank accession: KY744279), which was from EIN3/EIL family. Bioinformatic analysis showed that the open reading frame of this gene was 1 842 base pairs. The encoded amino acids sequence contains a typical EIN3 domain. After Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV) and different exogenous hormones ET, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) treatment, the expression of GhEIN3 was up-regulated by FOV and ET induction, but down-regulated by SA and JA induction. The VIGS results showed that the GhEIN3 gene silenced plants were more susceptible to FOV than the control. The results of gene expression analysis showed that compared with the control, the expression levels of pathogenesis-related genes PR1, PR2, and PR4, ethylene response factor gene ERF1 and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase gene ACO were decreased, while the expression level of PR5 gene was increased after GhEIN3 gene silencing. [Conclusion] A EIN3/EIL family gene GhEIN3 identified from G. hirsutum responds to Fusarium wilt and hormones ET, SA and JA induction. Combined the GhEIN3 gene expression analysis of the cotton plants under ET, SA, JA and FOV treatments with VIGS results, this study showed that the GhEIN3 gene plays a positive role in the process of cotton to resist Fusarium wilt.

    陆地棉衰老相关基因GhSAG101的克隆及抗病功能分析
    吴健锋,樊志浩,武连杰,胡晓旺,韩知里,高巍,龙璐
    棉花学报. 2022, 34(3):  187-197.  doi:10.11963/cs20210030
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    【目的】挖掘棉花抗病相关基因,为创制抗病棉新品种提供理论依据和候选基因。【方法】以陆地棉(Gossypium hirsutum) TM-1为研究对象,克隆了棉花衰老相关基因GhSAG101(senescence-associated gene 101)。通过实时荧光定量聚合酶链式反应分析GhSAG101在棉花幼苗不同组织中的表达量,以及在黄萎病菌诱导下表达量的变化;通过蛋白序列分析预测了GhSAG101的保守位点和活性位点;利用病毒诱导的基因沉默技术沉默棉花中GhSAG101,以空载体作为对照,通过棉花整株接种和离体叶片接种黄萎病菌研究GhSAG101沉默对黄萎病抗性的影响。【结果】GhSAG101基因编码区长度为1 764 bp,编码587个氨基酸残基的蛋白质,包含水解酶家族、EDS1(enhanced disease susceptibility 1)家族的保守结构域和亲核位点。GhSAG101在根中表达量最高,茎中次之,在叶片中表达量最低,黄萎病菌侵染中后期GhSAG101在根中被诱导上调表达。在棉花中沉默GhSAG101基因降低了黄萎病菌在寄主体内的扩展速度,减缓了病害发生过程。【结论】GhSAG101负调控棉花对黄萎病的抗性,可作为棉花抗病育种的候选基因。


    [Objective] Screening and study of cotton disease resistance genes will provide theoretical basis and genetic resources for cotton disease resistance breeding. [Method] The senescence associated gene 101 (GhSAG101) was cloned from Gossypium hirsutum L. TM-1. The expression levels of GhSAG101 in different organs of cotton seedlings, as well as in cotton roots under Verticillium dahliae inoculation were analyzed by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The conserved domains and active sites of GhSAG101 were predicted through protein sequence analysis. Knockdown lines of GbSAG101 generated through virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) system were employed for the examination of Verticillium dahliae resistance by inoculation of the whole plant and detached leaves, and the empty vector transferred plants were used as the negative control. [Result] The coding region of GhSAG101 gene is 1 764 bp in length, encodes a protein with 587 amino acid residues that includes a nucleophilic elbow and the conserved domains belonging to the abhydrolase superfamily and enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1) family. The highest expression level of GhSAG101 was found in roots, followed by stems, and the lowest expression level was found in leaves. GhSAG101 expression was induced by V. dahliae infection in roots at the middle and late infection stage. Suppression of GhSAG101 expression in cotton reduced the spread of V. dahliae and retarded the disease process. [Conclusion] GhSAG101 negatively regulates cotton resistance to V. dahliae and can be used as a candidate gene in the breeding of cotton with improved disease resistance.

    氮肥减量深施对油后直播棉花干物质与氮素积累、分配及产量的影响
    李飞,郭莉莉,赵瑞元,尹凌洁,王家珍,李彩红,何叔军,梅正鼎
    棉花学报. 2022, 34(3):  198-214.  doi:10.11963/cs20210072
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    【目的】研究洞庭湖植棉区油(菜)棉(花)轮作种植制度下,氮肥施用深度及用量对棉花干物质与氮素的积累、分配及产量的影响,为油后直播棉化肥减施增效提供依据。【方法】于2018年和2019年在湖南常德开展氮肥运筹试验,以湘FZ001为试验材料,设置15 cm和5 cm(H15、H5)2个施用深度,0、90、180、270和360 kg·hm-2纯氮(N0、N90、N180、N270、N360)5个施氮量。【结果】棉花氮素积累量与干物质积累量的变化趋势一致,积累动态均符合逻辑斯谛(logistic)模型;氮肥深施提高了棉株氮素和干物质的积累量及其在生殖器官中的分配比例;随着施氮量的增加,氮素、干物质积累量及其在生殖器官的分配比例均呈现先升高后下降的变化趋势;氮肥施用深度及用量互作下,氮素积累量在H15N270下取得最大值,氮素在生殖器官的分配比例、干物质积累量及其在生殖器官的分配比例均在H15N180下最大。从氮素和干物质积累特征值可以看出,棉花中氮素和干物质的累积与分配基本同步,其中氮素的平均快速积累期起始时间略早于干物质积累,说明棉花氮素吸收可能是干物质积累的基础和前提。H15比H5提高了氮肥的利用效率,同时氮肥表观利用率、农学利用率、偏生产力随施氮量提高均呈现下降趋势;H15N180处理可以获得较为理想的氮肥表观利用率、农学利用率、偏生产力和生产效率,籽棉产量最高。【结论】适量氮肥深施可以促使棉花高产。推荐本地区氮肥施用深度从常规的撒施或浅施5 cm提高到15 cm,施氮量从常规的270~300 kg·hm-2减少为180 kg·hm-2


    [Objective] The effects of nitrogen application depth and amount on cotton dry matter and nitrogen accumulation, distribution and yield in rape-cotton rotation cropping system around Dongting Lake cotton planting region were studied, so as to provide a scientific basis for reducing the application and increasing the efficiency of chemical fertilizer of direct seeding cotton after harvesting rape. [Method] The nitrogen application experiment was carried out at Changde, Hunan Province in 2018 and 2019. A field experiment was conducted using Xiang FZ001 with the treatments of two nitrogen application depths (15 cm and 5 cm, marked by H15 and H5), and five nitrogen rates (0, 90, 180, 270 and 360 kg·hm-2, marked by N0, N90, N180, N270, N360, respectively). [Result] The trends of cotton nitrogen and dry matter accumulation were consistent, and the accumulation dynamics were in line with the logistic model. Deep application of nitrogen fertilizer increased the accumulation of nitrogen and dry matter in cotton plants and their distribution proportion in reproductive organs. With the increase of nitrogen application rate, the accumulation of nitrogen and dry matter and their distribution proportion in reproductive organs all showed a trend of increase at first and decrease afterward. Under the interaction of nitrogen application depth and amount, the accumulation of nitrogen was maximum under H15N270; the proportion of nitrogen distribution in reproductive organs, dry matter accumulation and its distribution proportion in reproductive organs were maximum under H15N180. From the characteristic values of nitrogen and dry matter accumulation, it could be seen that the accumulation and distribution of nitrogen and dry matter in cotton was basically sychronized, with the average rapid accumulation of nitrogen starting slightly earlier than that of dry matter accumulation, indicating that cotton nitrogen absorption was likely the basis and premise of dry matter accumulation. Compared with H5, H15 improved the utilization efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer, and the apparent utilization rate, agronomic utilization rate and biased productivity of nitrogen fertilizer decreased with the increase of nitrogen application rate. With the interaction of nitrogen application depth and amount, the H15N180 treatment could obtain desirable apparent utilization rate, agronomic utilization rate, biased productivity and production efficiency and highest seed cotton yield. [Conclusion] This study indicated that applying suitable nitrogen application rate and increasing fertilization depth could promote high yield. And it was recommended that the depth of nitrogen application should be increased from 5 cm to 15 cm,and the quantity should be reduced from 270-300 kg·hm-2 to 180 kg·hm-2 for the tested region.

    陆地棉ACX基因家族的鉴定与功能分析
    田一波,潘奥,陈劲,周仲华,袁小玲,刘志
    棉花学报. 2022, 34(3):  215-226.  doi:10.11963/cs20220012
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    【目的】通过对陆地棉酰基辅酶A氧化酶(acyl coenzyme A oxidase, ACX)基因家族进行鉴定和表达分析,为后续研究ACX基因的功能奠定基础。【方法】采用生物信息学方法对陆地棉基因组中ACX基因家族成员进行鉴定,并系统分析其理化性质、基因结构、进化关系、基因复制、启动子区顺式作用元件和表达模式等。利用病毒诱导的基因沉默技术初步探究GhACX16基因的功能。【结果】陆地棉基因组中鉴定到20个ACX基因,分布在13条染色体上,聚类分析将其分为4个亚族。非同义突变率/同义突变率(Ka/Ks)分析结果表明陆地棉ACX家族基因经历了较强烈的纯化选择。ACX基因的启动子区含有热应激、干旱、植物激素响应等相关的顺式作用元件。非生物胁迫下的表达模式分析结果显示,陆地棉ACX基因明显响应高温、低温、盐和模拟干旱胁迫;分析高温胁迫下耐高温与高温敏感棉花材料不同发育时期的花药中ACX基因的表达模式,发现GhACX5GhACX16基因的表达量变化明显。与阴性对照相比,高温胁迫下GhACX16基因沉默的棉苗表现出明显的耐高温特征,且叶片中脯氨酸含量、叶绿素含量和过氧化氢酶活性显著升高,而丙二醛含量显著降低。【结论】陆地棉ACX基因的鉴定及表达模式分析表明,ACX基因广泛参与非生物胁迫响应;经基因沉默试验和生理生化分析初步推测其中的GhACX16基因可能在高温胁迫响应中发挥重要的功能。


    [Objective] The acyl-coenzyme A oxidase (ACX) gene family was identified in Gossypium hirsutum and their expression patterns were analyzed, which would lay the foundation for further studies of the function of ACX genes. [Method] The members of ACX gene family in G. hirsutum genome were identified by bioinformatics method, and their physical and chemical properties, gene structure, evolutionary relationships, gene replication, cis-acting elements in promoter region and expression patterns were analyzed systematically, and the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technique was used to preliminary explore the function of GhACX16 gene. [Results] A total of 20 ACX genes were identified in G. hirsutum genome and distributed on 13 chromosomes, which were divided into 4 subfamilies by cluster analysis. The results of non-synonymous mutation rate/synonymous mutation rate (Ka/Ks) analysis showed that the ACX genes in G. hirsutum had undergone strong purifying selection. The promoter region of ACX genes contain cis-acting elements related to heat stress, drought, plant hormone responses, etc. The expression patterns under abiotic stresses showed that the ACX genes responded obviously to high-temperature, low-temperature, salt, and simulated drought stress. The expression patterns of ACX genes in the anthers at different developmental stages of high temperature-tolerant/sensitive cotton lines under high temperature conditions were analyzed, and it was found that the expression levels of GhACX5 and GhACX16 changed obviously. Compared with the negative control, the GhACX16 silenced cotton seedlings showed obvious characteristics of high temperature tolerance, and the proline content, chlorophyll content, and catalase activity were significantly higher, while the malondialdehyde content was significantly lower in the leaves. [Conclusion] The identification and expression patterns of ACX genes in G. hirsutum showed that ACX genes were widely involved in abiotic stresses response, and GhACX16 gene was preliminary speculated to play an important role in high temperature stress response according to the VIGS verification and physiological and biochemical analysis.

    研究简报
    红铃虫成虫对4种中药材提取物的电生理及嗅觉反应
    尹海辰,许冬,武怀恒,丛胜波,杨甜甜,万鹏
    棉花学报. 2022, 34(3):  227-234.  doi:10.11963/cs20210043
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    【目的】开发利用中草药植物资源,建立红铃虫监测与防治新技术。【方法】以花椒(Zanthoxylum bungeanum)、黄柏(Cortex phellodendri)、云木香(Saussurea costus)、五倍子(Rhus chinensis)4种中药材提取物为对象,研究红铃虫(Pectinophora gossypiella)成虫对其电生理和嗅觉反应,并进一步探究复配剂的增效作用。【结果】当气味源的质量浓度为15 g·L-1时,花椒和云木香提取物均可引起红铃虫成虫强烈的电生理反应;嗅觉试验结果表明,花椒提取物对于雌雄虫均有极显著的引诱作用,选择反应率分别为67.26%和76.72%;云木香提取物对于雄虫具有极显著的引诱作用,选择反应率为71.19%;2种提取物的诱捕效果与棉花植株相当。复配试验结果表明,花椒提取物与芳樟醇按体积比37和64复配,分别对雌虫和雄虫的诱捕表现出显著的增效作用。【结论】本研究通过一系列室内试验初步筛选出了2种对红铃虫有较高活性的具有潜在应用价值的引诱剂配方(花椒提取物与芳樟醇按体积比37和64复配),可为红铃虫的监测和绿色防控提供技术和数据支撑。


    [Objective] The purpose of this study is to utilize Chinese herbal medicine resources and to establish new monitoring and control technology of Pectinophora gossypiella. [Method] The electrophysiological and olfactory responses of P. gossypiella to the extracts of Zanthoxylum bungeanum, Cortex phellodendri, Saussurea costus, and Rhus chinensis were studied in this study, and the synergism of the extracts was further studied. [Result] The extracts of Z. bungeanum and S. costus could induce strong electrophysiological responses of P. gossypiella when the concentration of odor source was 15 g·L-1. The results of olfactory test showed that the extracts of Z. bungeanum had significant attraction to both female and male adults, and the selected response rates were 67.26% and 76.72%, respectively. The extract of S. costus had a very significant attraction to male adults, and the selected response rate was 71.19%. Further studies showed that the attractive effect of these two extracts was similar to that of cotton plants. Z. bungeanum extract mixed with linalool with the ratio of 3:7 and 6:4 (by volume), showed significantly synergistic effect on male and female insects respectively. [Conclusion] Based on a series of indoor experiments, two potential attractant, the mix ratio of Z. bungeanum extract to linalool was 3:7 and 6:4, with high activity to P. gossypiella were screened, which can provide support for the detection and green control of P. gossypiella.

    基于红外传感器的棉花叶片温度变化特征及其影响因子分析
    王亚茹,杨北方,雷亚平,熊世武,韩迎春,王占彪,冯璐,李小飞,邢芳芳,辛明华,吴沣槭,陈家乐,李亚兵
    棉花学报. 2022, 34(3):  235-246.  doi:10.11963/cs20210064
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    【目的】叶片是对环境变化较敏感的植物器官,叶片温度是植物重要的生理指标。探究棉花叶片温度的昼夜变化特性、明确环境因子对叶片温度的影响。【方法】基于红外温度传感器对棉花叶片温度进行全自动实时监测,进而探究不同生育时期和不同天气条件下棉花叶片温度的昼夜变化特征,并通过相关性分析、逐步回归分析及通径分析方法探究叶片温度、叶气温差与环境因子的关系。【结果】不同天气条件和不同生育时期叶片温度的昼夜变化存在差异,叶片温度的变化幅度小于气温。环境因子(降水量除外)与棉花叶片温度、环境因子(水汽压除外)和叶气温差均显著相关(P<0.05),气温与叶片温度的相关性最高(r=0.890),空气相对湿度与叶气温差的相关性最高(r=0.825)。通径分析结果表明,对叶片温度的影响因子按决策系数排序依次为:气温>光合有效辐射>水汽压;光合有效辐射和水汽压均主要通过气温间接影响叶片温度的变化。对叶气温差的影响因子按决策系数排序依次为空气相对湿度>日照时间>水汽压;日照时间、水汽压都主要通过空气相对湿度间接影响叶气温差的变化。【结论】探究了棉花叶片温度的昼夜动态变化,初步分析了环境因素对叶片温度和叶气温差的综合影响,研究结果可以为棉花生产和智能化管理提供参考。


    [Objective] Leaf blade is a plant organ that is sensitive to environmental changes. Leaf temperature is an important physiological index of plants. This study aims to explore the day-night variation characteristics of leaf temperature and to clarify the influence of meteorological factors on leaf temperature. [Method] In this study, the temperature of cotton leaves was automatically monitored in real-time based on infrared temperature sensors, and then the characteristics of day-night variation of cotton leaves temperature in different growth periods and under different weather conditions were explored, and the relationship of meteorological factors with leaf temperature and leaf-air temperature difference were explored by correlation analysis, stepwise regression analysis and path statistical analysis. [Result] The day-night variation of leaf temperature was different in various weather conditions and growth stages, and the variation range of leaf temperature was less than that of air temperature. Environmental factors were significantly correlated with cotton leaf temperature (except precipitation) and leaf-air temperature difference (except water vapor pressure) (P<0.05). The correlation between air temperature and leaf temperature was the highest (r = 0.890). The correlation between air relative humidity and leaf-air temperature difference was the highest (r = 0.825). The results of path analysis showed that the order of factors’ effect on leaf temperature according to decision coefficient was air temperature > photosynthetic active radiation > water vapor pressure. Photosynthetic active radiation and water vapor pressure mainly indirectly affected the change of leaf temperature through air temperature. The order of the effects of analyzed environmental factors on the leaf-air temperature difference according to the decision coefficient is air relative humidity > sunshine time > water vapor pressure. Sunshine time and water vapor pressure indirectly affect the change of leaf-air temperature difference through air relative humidity. [Conclusion] This study explored the day-night dynamic changes of cotton leaf temperature, and preliminarily explored the comprehensive effects of environmental factors on leaf temperature and leaf-air temperature difference. The results provide reference for cotton production and intelligent management.

    化学打顶对南疆棉花干物质积累与分配的影响
    胡宇凯,赵书珍,董红强,魏永海,田玉刚,陈佳林,董合林,马小艳,冯璐,翟云龙,陈国栋
    棉花学报. 2022, 34(3):  247-255.  doi:10.11963/cs20210048
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    【目的】研究化学打顶剂剂量对棉花干物质积累和分配的影响。【方法】以南疆棉区3个陆地棉品种(新陆中37号、新陆早77号和新陆中82号)为试验材料,采用两因素裂区试验设计,主区为4个打顶处理(75、105、135 g·hm-2甲哌钅翁 打顶剂处理和人工打顶处理),副区为品种,研究化学打顶剂对南疆干旱区棉花干物质积累、分配的影响。【结果】药后7~28 d,75 g·hm-2打顶剂处理的棉花营养器官干物质质量最低,比105 g·hm-2、135 g·hm-2打顶剂处理及人工打顶处理的低2.91%~31.12%;在75 g·hm-2和105 g·hm-2打顶剂处理下,药后42 d的棉花生殖器官干物质积累量比人工打顶处理的分别高9.18%、13.93%;75 g·hm-2处理下,新陆中37号、新陆早77号、新陆中82号的籽棉产量分别比人工打顶处理的高8.64%、4.54%、18.56%。【结论】75 g·hm-2甲哌钅翁 处理对营养器官的抑制效果更明显,能有效提高棉花产量;打顶剂剂量与棉花品种的互作效应显著或极显著影响棉花营养器官干物质积累。


    [Objective] This study aims to analyze the effects of chemical topping on cotton dry matter accumulation and distribution. [Method] Three upland cotton varieties (Xinluzhong 37, Xinluzao 77, and Xinluzhong 82) were selected as the experimental materials. A two-factor split plot design was adopted, taking four topping treatment (75, 105, 135 g·hm-2 mepiquat chloride, and manual topping) in the main plot, three cotton varieties in the secondary plot, to study the effects of the chemical topping on dry matter accumulation and distribution of cotton in the arid area of Southern Xinjiang. [Result] The 75 g·hm-2 mepiquat chloride treated plants had the lowest total dry weight of vegetative organs at 7-28 days after the treatment, which was 2.91%-31.12% lower than that of 105 g·hm-2, 135 g·hm-2 treatment and manual topping. The dry matter accumulation of reproductive organs of 75 g·hm-2 and 105 g·hm-2 chemical topping treatments were 9.18% and 13.93% higher than that of manual topping at 42 days after treatment, respectively. Under 75 g·hm-2 treatment, the yield of Xinluzhong 37, Xinluzao 77, and Xinluzhong 82 was 8.64%, 4.54% and 18.56% higher than that of manual topping, respectively. [Conclusion] Applying of 75 g·hm-2 mepiquat chloride had more obvious inhibition effect on dry matter mass of vegetative organs and could effectively increase cotton yield. There was significant or extremely significant interaction between chemical topping dosage and cotton varieties on dry matter accumulation in cotton vegetative organs.

    砷胁迫下接种丛枝菌根真菌对棉花光合特性和叶肉细胞超微结构的影响
    龚明贵,刘凯洋,魏亚楠,白娜,邱智军,张巧明
    棉花学报. 2022, 34(3):  256-266.  doi:10.11963/cs20220022
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    【目的】研究丛枝菌根真菌(arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, AMF)接种对砷胁迫下棉花光合特性及其叶肉细胞超微结构的影响。【方法】以棉花种质大铃棉69号为供试材料,通过盆栽试验,将根内根孢囊霉(Rhizophagus intraradices)和摩西斗管囊霉(Funneliformis mosseae)2种AMF分别接种于棉花根部,探究在不同土壤砷浓度(0、100、200 mg·kg-1)条件下AMF对棉花气孔形态特征、气体交换参数、叶绿素荧光参数和叶肉细胞超微结构的影响。【结果】(1)砷胁迫显著降低了棉花叶片气孔的长度、宽度、密度、气孔导度、蒸腾速率、胞间CO2浓度与净光合速率,同时显著影响了叶绿素荧光参数。不同砷浓度下,与对照处理相比,AMF接种能增加叶片气孔的长度、宽度、开度、密度及导度,显著提高净光合速率、胞间CO2浓度、蒸腾速率、实际光合效率、最大光化学量子产量和光化学淬灭系数,降低了非光化学淬灭系数。100、200 mg·kg-1砷浓度下,摩西斗管囊霉处理的净光合速率和实际光合效率均显著高于根内根孢囊霉处理。(2)砷胁迫导致叶绿体逐渐肿胀,整体结构遭破坏,基粒类囊体排列紊乱且分布不均;线粒体内嵴排列松散变形,部分线粒体结构内部出现空洞,双层膜结构模糊。砷胁迫下,AMF接种处理的棉花叶肉细胞内叶绿体基粒片层清晰可见、线粒体内嵴结构排列较紧密,受砷损伤程度明显降低;摩西斗管囊霉的缓解作用更强。【结论】砷胁迫下,接种根内根孢囊霉和摩西斗管囊霉能显著提高棉花净光合速率和光能利用效率,增强其棉花光合能力,减轻砷对叶肉细胞超微结构的损伤。且摩西斗管囊霉的接种效果更佳。


    [Objective] The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation on photosynthetic characteristics and mesophyll cell ultrastructure in cotton under arsenic stress were studied. [Method] Cotton germplasm Dalingmian 69 were used as the test material in the pot experiment. Two species of AMF including Rhizophagus intraradices and Funneliformis mosseae were inoculated into the cotton roots respectively in order to investigate the effects of AMF on stomatal morphological characteristics, gas exchange parameters, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and mesophyll cell ultrastructure under different arsenic concentrations (0, 100, 200 mg·kg-1) in soil. [Result] (1) Arsenic stress significantly reduced stomatal length, width, density, conductance, transpiration rate, intercellular CO2 concentration and net photosynthetic rate, and significantly affected chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of cotton leaves. However, compared with the control treatment, inoculation of AMF increased the length, width, aperture, density, and conductance of cotton stomata, and significantly increased the net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, intercellular CO2 concentration, actual photosynthetic efficiency, the maximum photochemical quantum yield and photochemical quenching coefficient, and reduced the non-photochemical quenching coefficient under different concentrations of arsenic. Under 100 and 200 mg·kg-1 arsenic concentration, the net photosynthetic rate and actual photosynthetic efficiency of F. mosseae treatment were significantly higher than those of R. intraradices treatment. (2) Arsenic stress led to the gradual swelling of chloroplast, the overall structure was destroyed, the disordered and uneven arrangement of grana thylakoids, the loose and deformed arrangement of cristae in mitochondria, the appearance of voids in some mitochondrial structures, and the fuzzy double-layer membrane structure. However, under arsenic stress, the lamellae of chloroplast grana in the mesophyll cells of cotton inoculated with AMF were clearly visible, and the cristae in mitochondria were closely arranged, and the degree of arsenic damage was significantly reduced. The palliative effect of F. mosseae was even stronger. [Conclusion] Under arsenic stress, inoculation of F. mosseae and R. intraradices significantly increased the net photosynthetic rate and light energy utilization efficiency, and improved the photosynthetic capacity of cotton, and reduced the damage of arsenic to the ultrastructure of mesophyll cells. And the inoculation effect of F. mosseae was better.