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棉花学报
2021年 第33卷 第4期
刊出日期:2021-07-15
  
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    研究与进展
    不同种植模式棉花产量、种植效益与氮素利用率比较分析
    杨长琴,张国伟,王晓婧,刘瑞显,倪万潮
    棉花学报. 2021, 33(4):  307-318.  doi:10.11963/cs20200082
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    【目的】 研究长江流域棉区麦棉两熟种植制度下,不同种植模式对棉花产量、种植效益及氮素利用率的影响,为棉花高产高效生产提供依据。【方法】 采用裂区设计,研究麦后棉花不同种植方式(育苗移栽和直播)、品种(中熟和早熟)和氮肥运筹(不施氮和适宜氮肥运筹)对其生育进程、生物量累积与分配、产量、种植效益与氮素利用率的影响。【结果】 与育苗移栽方式相比,直播棉花生育进程快,尤其苗期缩短10~17 d;直播棉花生育中后期生物量和氮素累积量较高,且经济系数均以早熟品种较高。适宜氮肥运筹下,直播早熟品种与移栽中熟品种霜前皮棉产量均较高,且两者间差异不显著。适宜氮肥运筹下,移栽棉花的籽棉产值是直播方式的1.0~1.2倍,总成本是直播方式的1.8~2.0倍,收益仅为直播方式的23.0%~43.1%。氮素效率的结果表明,种植方式对农学利用率和氮素表观利用率的影响大于品种和氮肥运筹,直播方式的氮素农学利用率和表观利用率分别比移栽方式提高40.0%和76.4%(2017年);品种对氮素生产效率的影响大于种植方式与氮肥运筹,早熟品种的氮素生产效率比中熟品种提高45.3%(2017年)。【结论】 长江流域棉区,适宜氮肥运筹下早熟品种麦后直播有利于实现棉花高产稳产、生产总成本低而效益高;其氮素农学利用率、表观利用率和生产效率均较高,是该棉区麦后棉高产高效生产模式。


    [Objective] Field experiment was carried out to study the effect of different planting systems on lint yield, economic benefit, and nitrogen efficiency of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in the Yangtze River valley and to provide theoretical support for high yield and efficiency production of cotton. [Method] A split-plot experiment was conducted to explore the biomass accumulation and allocation characteristics, lint yield, economic benefit and nitrogen efficiency of cotton in response to different planting patterns (transplanting and field-seeded), varieties (early-maturing and medium-maturing) and nitrogen applications(no nitrogen and optimum nitrogen). [Result] The growing process fasted especially for the seedling stage under field-seeded pattern compared with that under transplanting pattern. The biomass and nitrogen accumulation at the medium-late stage of cotton under field-seeded pattern were higher than those under transplanting pattern, and the economic coefficients of early-maturing variety were higher than those of medium-maturing variety. The lint yield of the early-maturing variety under field-seeded pattern and the medium-maturity variety under transplanting pattern were higher under nitrogen application, and the difference between them was not significant. Under nitrogen application, the output value of seed cotton under transplanting pattern was 1.0-1.2 times of that under field-seeded pattern, but the cost of the former was 1.8-2.0 times of that of the latter, and the benefit of the former was only 23.0%-43.1% of the latter. The effects of planting pattern on the nitrogen agronomic efficiency (NAE) and nitrogen apparent recovery efficiency (NARE) were greater than those of variety and nitrogen application, and the NAE and NARE under field-seeded pattern were 40.0% and 76.4% (2017) higher than those under transplanting pattern. The effects of variety on nitrogen production efficiency (NPE) were greater than those of planting pattern and nitrogen application, and the NPE of early-maturing variety was 45.3% higher than medium-maturing variety in 2017. [Conclusion] The early-maturing variety with optimum nitrogen application under field-seeded pattern was conducive to higher yield, lower cost and higher benefit, and has higher NAE, NARE and NPE, which is the high yield and efficiency planting system for cotton after wheat in the Yangtze River valley.

    陆地棉叶片发育相关基因GhRH39克隆与功能分析
    卞英杰,王寒涛,魏恒玲,张蒙,李弈,喻树迅
    棉花学报. 2021, 33(4):  319-327.  doi:10.11963/cs20200028
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    【目的】 研究陆地棉DEAD-box RNA解旋酶基因GhRH39在叶片发育中的功能。【方法】 借助生物信息学方法分析GhRH39的基因结构和进化关系,利用实时定量聚合酶链反应PCR(Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, qRT-PCR)分析该基因在棉花不同组织和叶片不同发育时期的表达情况,利用病毒诱导的基因沉默(Virus-induced gene silencing, VIGS)技术对该基因进行沉默。观察阳性植株表型,检测其光合色素含量变化,对阳性植株中叶绿体发育和光合色素合成相关基因进行表达量检测。【结果】 GhRH39编码620个氨基酸,且序列较为保守。qRT-PCR分析表明,该基因在根、茎、叶片、顶芽、花瓣、纤维中均有表达,在叶片中表达量较高,且在叶片中的表达量随着叶片发育进程而变化。利用VIGS技术成功降低了GhRH39的表达水平,基因沉默的阳性棉株出现失绿表型,叶绿素a、叶绿素b、类胡萝卜素3种光合色素含量均降低。阳性沉默棉株的叶绿体发育和光合色素合成相关基因表达量出现一定程度的下降。【结论】 GhRH39基因影响棉花叶绿素和类胡萝卜素合成,同时影响叶绿体发育过程。


    [Objective] The aim of this article is to study the function of GhRH39, a DEAD-box RNA helicase gene, in leaf development of upland cotton. [Methode] The gene structure and evolutionary relationships of GhRH39 were analyzed using bioinformatic approaches. The expression patterns of GhRH39 in different tissues and different leaf development stages were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) was applied to silence the gene. The phenotypes of GhRH39-silenced plants were observead and pigment contents were detected. The expression levels of those genes related to chloroplast development and photosynthetic pigments synthesis in the GhRH39-silenced plants were detected. [Results] Bioinformatic analysis showed that GhRH39 encoding 620 amino acids had conservative sequence. The expressions of GhRH39 were detected in root, stem, leaf, apical bud, petal and fiber. Its expression level is higher in leaf, and changed with the development process of leaf. The expression of GhRH39 was successfully suppressed by VIGS. The virescent leaves were appeared in GhRH39-silenced cotton plants, in which the contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoid all decreased. To some extent, the expressions of those genes related to development of chloroplast and photosynthetic pigments synthesis decreased in the GhRH39-silenced plants. [Conclusion] GhRH39 gene may affect the synthesis of chlorophyll a and b, and carotenoid, and affect the development of chloroplast in cotton.

    龟纹瓢虫生长发育及卵巢与滤泡上皮细胞的研究
    皇甫宁博,高雪珂,王丽,朱香镇,张开心,李东阳,姬继超,雒珺瑜,崔金杰
    棉花学报. 2021, 33(4):  328-336.  doi:10.11963/cs20210021
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    【目的】 龟纹瓢虫是农田害虫的重要捕食性天敌。明确龟纹瓢虫生长发育、卵子发生和滤泡上皮细胞发育规律对于解决人工扩繁龟纹瓢虫的难题至关重要。【方法】 对龟纹瓢虫生长发育和生殖相关参数进行了测定,并通过细胞核和细胞骨架染色对龟纹瓢虫卵巢小管和滤泡上皮细胞形态进行系统观察。【结果】 (1)龟纹瓢虫1龄、2龄、3龄、4龄幼虫、蛹、雌成虫、雄成虫平均历期分别为1.13 d±0.09 d、1.48 d±0.11 d、1.34 d±0.08 d、2.34 d±0.06 d、2.81 d±0.08 d、51.08 d±1.13 d、48.36 d±1.29 d。在2~3龄幼虫期体长增加最快,4龄幼虫体长达到最长9.32 mm±0.27 mm,成虫体宽达到最宽3.70 mm±0.05 mm;(2)单雌日均产卵量最高为14.42粒±2.36粒,单雌累计产卵量为414粒±41.27粒,最高可达654粒。(3)明确了卵泡和卵母细胞动态变化,并观察到在卵黄沉积期滤泡上皮细胞间隙的形成,主要用于卵母细胞摄取卵黄原蛋白。【结论】 本研究明确了龟纹瓢虫体长、体宽和卵子发生规律、滤泡上皮细胞发育规律,为进一步探索龟纹瓢虫生殖调控分子机制、解决人工扩繁难题提供理论依据。


    [Objective] The Propylea japonica is an important predator in farmland. It is very important to reveal the growth and development, the regularity of the development of oogenesis and follicular epithelial cell in P. japonica for solving the problem of artificial propagation of ladybirds. [Methode] The parameters related to the development and reproduction of P. japonica were measured. The morphology of ovarioles and follicular epithelial cells of P. japonica were systematically observed by staining of nucleus and cytoskeleton. [Result] (1) The results showed that the average duration of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar larvae, and pupa, female adults, and male adults of P. japonica were 1.13 d±0.09 d, 1.48 d±0.11 d, 1.34 d±0.08 d, 2.34 d±0.06 d, 2.81 d±0.08 d, 51.08 d±1.13 d and 48.36 d±1.29 d, respectively. The body length increased rapidly from the 2nd to the 3rd instars larvae. The larva reached the longest body length of 9.32 mm±0.27 mm at the 4th instar, and the body width reached the widest of 3.70 mm±0.05 mm in adult. (2) The highest daily average oviposition of a female was 14.42±2.36. The average number of eggs laid by a single female was 414±41.27, and the maximum number was 654. (3) The dynamic changes of follicles and oocytes were defined, and the formation of space (patency) between the follicular epithelial cells during yolk deposition phase was observed, which was mainly used for the uptake of vitellogenin by the oocytes. [Conclusion] In this study, we confirmed the regularity of body length, body width, oogenesis, and follicular epithelial cell development of P. japonica. This study provides a theoretical basis for us to further explore the molecular mechanism of reproductive regulation and to solve the problem of artificial propagation.

    棉花UGPase基因鉴定与生物信息学分析
    张岚,程琦,梁士辰,邓雨潇,潘玉欣
    棉花学报. 2021, 33(4):  337-346.  doi:10.11963/cs20200065
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    【目的】 尿苷二磷酸葡萄糖焦磷酸化酶(Uridine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase,UGPase)是糖合成代谢途径中的一种重要限速酶,在植物纤维细胞发育中起重要作用,但是关于棉花中UGPase基因的生物信息学研究却很少。本研究采用生物信息学手段鉴定和分析棉花UGPase基因家族特性,为其相关研究提供重要线索。【方法】 以陆地棉、海岛棉、亚洲棉和雷蒙德氏棉4种棉花为主要研究对象,结合藻类、水稻、葡萄、可可、榴莲等19种植物的UGPase基因进行系统进化分析和陆地棉UGPase基因的表达特性分析。【结果】 系统发育分析显示UGPase基因被分为UGPase-A和UGPase-B两大类。保守基序及适应性进化分析显示,UGPase-B类基因在进化中十分保守,UGPase-A类基因在进化中与UGPase-B类基因存在较大差异。棉花、葡萄、可可、榴莲UGPase基因同源性分析显示,棉花中大多数UGPase基因来源于异源四倍体棉花形成之前的基因组加倍事件。UGPase-A类在棉纤维发育起始和伸长期表达量较高,UGPase-B类在营养器官中表达量较高。【结论】 本研究明确了UGPase两类基因的结构、功能与进化,为后续研究奠定基础。


    [Objective] Uridine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase) is an important rate-limiting enzyme involved in glucose anabolism, which plays an important role in the development of plant fiber cells. However, there is little research in cotton UGPase genes. This study aimed to identify and analyze the characteristics of members of UGPase gene family in cotton. [Methode] Gossypium hirsutum, G. barbadense, G. arboreum, and G. raimondii were selected as the main research objects. The phylogenetic and expression characteristics of UGPase genes in G. hirsutum were analyzed by combining UGPase genes from 19 kinds of plants, including algae, rice, grape, cocao, durian, and so on. [Result] Phylogenetic analysis showed that UGPase genes were divided into two groups, UGPase-A and UGPase-B. Conserved motif and adaptive evolution analysis showed that UGPase-B type genes were very conservative in evolution, while UGPase-A type genes had great differences with UGPase-B in evolution. Homology analysis of UGPase genes in cotton, grape, cocao and durian showed that most of cotton UGPase genes originated from duplication events before the formation of allotetraploid cotton. The expression levels of UGPase-A type genes were higher at the initiation and elongation stage of cotton fiber development, and the expression levels of UGPase-B type genes were higher in vegetative organs. [Conclusion] The structure, function and evolution of cotton UGPase genes were analyzed, which laid the foundation for further study.

    基于无人机数码图像的机采棉脱叶率监测模型构建
    马怡茹,吕新,祁亚琴,张泽,易翔,陈翔宇,鄢天荥,侯彤瑜
    棉花学报. 2021, 33(4):  347-359.  doi:10.11963/cs20210003
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    【目的】 脱叶率是评价机采棉脱叶催熟效果的重要依据。以无人机RGB图像为基础数据源,通过从RGB图像中提取14种可见光植被指数,建立快速、准确监测棉花脱叶率的模型,为机采棉适时采收提供理论和技术支持。【方法】 设置不同棉花品种,通过采集不同脱叶剂浓度及喷施时间处理下的棉花脱叶率数据,并利用无人机采集冠层RGB图像,提取可见光植被指数,分析其与棉花脱叶率的相关关系,进而采用一元线性回归(Simple linear regression,SLR)、多元线性回归(Multivariate linear regression,MLR)和偏最小二乘法回归(Partial least square regression,PLSR)构建棉花脱叶率监测模型,并进行模型评价。【结果】 不同处理下的棉花脱叶率有明显差异,脱叶率与不同可见光植被指数存在较好相关性,其中三角形绿度值(Triangular greenness index,TGI)与棉花脱叶率的相关性最高(r=0.81)。建模结果表明,SLR模型中,以TGI指数建模效果最好(决定系数0.66,均方根误差10.44%,相对均方根误差12.87%);MLR模型中,以过蓝指数(Excess blue index,ExB)、绿叶指数(Green leaf index,GLI)、TGI和过绿指数(Excess green index,ExG)4个植被指数组合建立的模型效果最好,其决定系数为0.70,均方根误差为10.26%,相对均方根误差为12.65%。PLSR模型中,以ExB、GLI、TGI、ExG、综合植被指数2和综合植被指数1建立的模型精度更高,其决定系数为0.70,均方根误差为10.02%,相对均方根误差为12.22%。外部验证表明,各模型实测值与预测值间有较好的拟合关系。【结论】 以MLR和PLSR方法建立的模型精度较高,拟合程度较好。从计算量及模型复杂程度角度考虑,通过MLR方法以ExB、GLI、TGI、ExG建立的棉花脱叶率监测模型,能够更好地监测棉花脱叶率。


    [Objective] Defoliation rate is an important basis for evaluating defoliation and ripening effect of machine-picked cotton. In this study, 14 kinds of color vegetation index were extracted from RGB images to establish a fast and accurate estimation model for cotton defoliation rate, which provides a theoretical and technical basis for timely harvesting of machine-picked cotton. [Methode] Different cotton varieties were set up. The data of cotton defoliation rates of different defoliant concentrations and spraying times were collected, and the canopy RGB images were collected by unmanned arerial vehicle(UAV). The correlation between color vegetation index and cotton defoliation rate was analyzed. Then, the estimation model of cotton defoliation rates was constructed by using the methods of simple linear regression (SLR), multivariate linear regression (MLR) and partial least square regression (PLSR). Meanwhile, the model was evaluated. [Result] The results showed different cotton defoliation rates after different treatments. There was a remarkable correlation between the defoliation rate and the visible light vegetation index; especially, the correlation coefficient between the triangular greenness index (TGI) and cotton defoliation rate is up to 0.81. The results showed that the model based on TGI index was the best in the linear regression model, coefficient of determination (R2) = 0.66, root mean squared error (RMSE) = 10.44%, relative RMSE (rRMSE) = 12.87%; the model based on excess blue index (ExB), green leaf index (GLI), TGI and excess green index (ExG) was outstanding in the multiple linear regression models (R2 = 0.70, RMSE = 10.26%, rRMSE = 12.65%). In the PLSR models, the one with ExB, GLI, TGI, ExG, Comprehensive 2 and Comprehensive 1, had higher accuracy, R2= 0.70, RMSE = 10.02%, rRMSE = 12.22%. The external verification showed that there was a good fitting relationship between the measured values and the predicted values of each model. [Conclusion] The model established by MLR and PLSR has high accuracy and great fitting degree. Therefore, considering of the weight computation and complexity, the cotton defoliation rate estimation model established with ExB, GLI, TGI and ExG has excellent performance.

    研究简报
    棉花光敏雄性不育系psm5的培育及其育性转变规律
    苟浩琦,马常凯,张迁,范术丽,马启峰,张朝军
    棉花学报. 2021, 33(4):  360-367.  doi:10.11963/cs20200025
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    【目的】 培育棉花新型光敏不育系,获得优良光敏不育系亲本,为棉花育种提供优异亲本材料。【方法】 利用psm4与W10进行杂交,然后自交3代,获得与psm4具有相同光敏不育特性的光敏不育系psm5。研究psm5在不同光照条件下的育性及其转变规律。【结果】 psm5保留了psm4在日照时间大于12.5 h的条件下花药不开裂、不能正常散粉,而在日照时间小于11.5 h的短日照条件下花药可以正常开裂散粉、正常可育的特性。研究psm5在不同光照条件下的育性及其转变规律。【结论】 介绍了光敏雄性核不育新材料psm5的培育过程及其光敏特性,为利用psm5杂交制种提供了可靠的理论基础。psm5psm4育性转变时期发生在开花前12~15 d。psm5psm4一样是典型的孢子体光敏雄性不育系。psm5是隐性光敏核不育系,恢复系范围广,利于配制优势杂交组合,在棉花杂交育种中有良好的应用前景。


    [Objective] The aim of this study is to breed new photosensitive male sterile lines in cotton, and to obtain excellent sterile parents to speed up premium cotton breeding process. [Methode] In this paper, the psm4 photosensitive male sterile line was crossed to W10 firstly, and then the hybrid F1 was self-pollinated by 3 generations to produce the psm5, which had the same photosensitive male sterile trait as psm4. [Result] The anther of psm5 could not crack and its pollen could not be released normally when the illumination time was more than 12.5 h, but the anther could crack and the pollen could be released normally when the illumination time was less than 11.5 h. [Conclusion] This paper introduces the breeding process and photosensitive characteristics of psm5, which provides a reliable theoretical basis for the application of psm5 in crossbreeding. The fertility transition period of psm4 and psm5 is in 12~15 days before flowering, and both psm4 and psm5 are typical sporophyte photosensitive male sterile lines. psm5, a recessive photosensitive male sterile line, has a wide range of restorer lines, which is easy to make superior hybrid combinations and has a good application prospect in cotton crossbreeding.

    FBP7::iaaM基因陆地棉育种应用初报
    程成,李斌,王雅丽,赵楠,苏莹,聂虎帅,华金平
    棉花学报. 2021, 33(4):  368-376.  doi:10.11963/cs20200060
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    【目的】 研究转FBP7::iaaM基因对不同陆地棉材料纤维产量、品质及种子活力的影响。【方法】 以转FBP7::iaaM基因种质IF1-1为父本,与中棉所12、鄂抗棉9号及其谱系涉及的亲本等27个不同遗传背景陆地棉的品种杂交获得F1,通过分子检测确定阳性植株,考种测定衣分、籽指,取样进行纤维品质检测和种子发芽试验,比较FBP7::iaaM基因效应,评价IF1-1的育种应用价值。【结果】 分子检测确认F1阳性植株,取样考种发现:与陆地棉母本比较,多数包含FBP7::iaaM基因的F1衣分提高(平均提高6.60百分点),籽指降低(平均降低1.8 g);F1纤维品质未表现出明显负效应:部分材料的马克隆值等级提高,纤维上半部平均长度、断裂比强度和断裂伸长率提高。发芽试验结果表明,尽管绝大多数包含FBP7::iaaM基因的F1种子籽指降低,但是发芽率和发芽势基本不变。【结论】 FBP7::iaaM基因转育合适的受体材料可以显著提高衣分,对种子发芽没有不利影响,IF1-1在同步改良棉花纤维品质和产量方面有重要的利用价值。


    [Objective] The aim of this study is to evaluate the genetic effect of FBP7::iaaM gene on fiber yield, quality and seed vigor in different upland cotton varieties. [Methode] In this study, IF1-1 was used as a male parent to produce hybrids with 27 cotton varieties of different genetic backgrounds, which are CCRI 12 and Ekangmian No. 9 and their originated parent lines. The lint percentage, seed index, fiber quality traits, germination potential and seed germination rate of F1 were detected to evaluate the breeding value of FBP7::iaaM gene in IF1-1. [Result] The lint percentage of F1 hybrids with FBP7::iaaM gene increased by an average of 6.60 percentage points, and seed index decreased with an average of 1.8 g, and the FBP7::iaaM gene had no negative effect on seed germination potential and germination rate. Most F1 hybrids showed better fiber quality, such as fiber micronaire, fiber length, breaking tenacity, and breaking elongation. [Conclusion] In one word, IF1-1 germplasm line with FBP7::iaaM gene showed important potential in genetic improvement in upland cotton.

    基于重测序鉴定SbHKT基因在陆地棉基因组中的插入位点
    徐鹏,郭琪,徐珍珍,孟珊,陈天子,沈新莲
    棉花学报. 2021, 33(4):  377-383.  doi:10/11963/cs20190115
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    【目的】 明确SbHKT基因棉花HKT-1株系的插入位点序列特征。【方法】 对HKT-1株系重测序,本地BlastN比对获得插入位点处的侧翼序列,设计聚合酶链式反应(Polymerase chain reaction,PCR)特异引物验证插入位点的准确性。【结果】 获得SbHKT基因插入位点处107 bp的左边界(Left border,LB)端侧翼序列HKT1_LSEQ,122 bp 的右边界(Right border,RB)端侧翼序列HKT1_RSEQ;锚定基因组后显示SbHKT基因的插入引发了陆地棉染色体结构变异。分别根据LB和RB端侧翼序列设计PCR特异引物扩增HKT-1株系T-DNA全长,目的条带含有完整的T-DNA骨架序列以及SbHKT基因序列,证实HKT1_LSEQ和HKT1_RSEQ是同一个插入位点的左右侧翼序列。【结论】 基于重测序技术获得了SbHKT基因在陆地棉基因组中的侧翼序列,建立了SbHKT基因转化体特异性检测方法。


    [Objective] The purpose of this study was to identify the SbHKT insertion site in Gossypium hirsutum genome. [Methode] The flanking sequences at the insertion sites were obtained by local BlastN alignment. The T-DNA insertion site was validated by specific primer polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. [Result] A 107 bp left border (LB) flanking sequence named HKT1_LSEQ and a 122 bp right border (RB) flanking sequence named HKT1_RSEQ were obtained. It was shown that the insertion of SbHKT gene caused chromosomal structural variation in upland cotton after anchoring HKT1_LSEQ and HKT1_RSEQ to reference genome of G. hirsutum. Specific PCR primers were designed in the flanking sequences of LB and RB to amplify the intact T-DNA of the HKT-1 strain. The sequencing of the target band revealed that it contained complete T-DNA skeleton sequence and SbHKT gene sequences. HKT1_LSEQ and HKT1_RSEQ were proved to be the flanking sequences of the same insertion. [Conclusion] The flanking sequences of SbHKT insertion site were obtained based on re-sequencing technology. A method for specific detection of SbHKT gene transformation events was established.