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棉花学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (3): 232-240.doi: 10.11963/issn.1002-7807.201503006

• 研究与进展 • 上一篇    下一篇

氮素对滨海盐土棉花产量、品质及生物量的影响

邹芳刚1,2,王友华1,赵文青1,陈兵林1,孟亚利1,周治国1*   

  1. 1.南京农业大学/农业部南方作物生理生态重点开放实验室,江苏 南京 210095;2. 江苏省种子管理站,江苏 南京 210036
  • 收稿日期:2014-03-29 出版日期:2015-05-15 发布日期:2015-05-15
  • 通讯作者: giscott@njau.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:邹芳刚(1987―),男,博士研究生,fg4321@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金:氮素影响棉花纤维加厚发育及纤维比强度形成的生理机制研究(30771279)

Effect of N Application Rate on Growth, Yield and Fiber Quality of Cotton Grown in Saline Coastal Land

Zou Fanggang1,2 , Wang Youhua1, Zhao Wenqing1, Chen Binglin1, Meng Yali1, Zhou Zhiguo1*   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology & Ecology in Southern China, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China; 2. Seed Management Stations of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing 210036, China
  • Received:2014-03-29 Online:2015-05-15 Published:2015-05-15
  • Contact: giscott@njau.edu.cn

摘要: 为研究不同施氮量对滨海盐土花后棉株生物量、生物量累积特征及其与产量、品质的关系,于2010年和2012年在江苏滨海盐土设置了氮肥水平试验。结果表明:在0~600 kg·hm-2范围内施氮量越大棉株总生物量累积越多,而皮棉产量2010年和2012年分别在施氮375 kg·hm-2和300 kg·hm-2时达到最大;成铃数在施氮300~375 kg·hm-2范围内达到最大;铃重和衣分随施氮量增加而增加,达到最大值后(≥300 kg·hm-2)差异不显著。在300~375 kg·hm-2施氮量范围内纤维比强度最高;高氮有利于上部、顶部果枝纤维长度、比强度、伸长率的提高和马克隆值的优化,但显著降低中下部果枝棉纤维比强度,导致中部纤维马克隆值变劣、下部果枝纤维伸长率下降,说明高氮对中下部果枝棉纤维品质的形成利弊各半,适量高氮可提高上部及顶部果枝产量、品质。在滨海盐土条件下,利于产量、品质及氮素利用效率提高的适宜施氮量为375 kg·hm-2

关键词: 棉花; 滨海盐碱地; 氮肥用量; 生物量; 产量; 品质

Abstract: Field experiments were carried out at Dafeng experimental station (33.2°N, 120.5°E) in 2010 and 2012 to study the effects of N application rates on cotton growth, cotton yield and fiber quality by applying six levels (0, 150, 300, 375, 450, 600 kg·hm-2) of N fertilization in the saline coastal soil. The results showed that: in the 0-600 kg·hm-2 application range, the plant biomass increased with the increasing of N application rate. The highest cotton yield in 2010 and 2012 were obtained under the 375 and 300 kg·hm-2 nitrogen application rate, respectively. For yield components, the highest boll number was obtained under 300 and 375 kg·hm-2 nitrogen application rates; Boll weight and lint percentage increased with the increase in nitrogen application rate at the 0-300 kg·hm-2 levels, and then maintained a steady level at the 300-600 kg·hm-2 N application rates. The highest fiber strength was obtain in 300 and 375 kg·hm-2 nitrogen application treatments. High nitrogen application rate (>375 kg·hm-2) increased the fiber length, strength, elongation ratio, and optimized micronaire value of bolls on upper and top fruiting branches; while it was disadvantageous to fiber quality of bolls on middle and bottom fruiting branches. Taken together, we concluded that using N fertilizer at an application rate of 375 kg·hm-2 could balance the requirements of high yield, high quality and high N efficiency in saline coastal land around the experimental station.

Key words: cotton; saline coastal land; nitrogen application; biomass; yield; fiber quality

中图分类号: 
  • S562.01