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棉花学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (5): 422-434.doi: 10.11963/cs20200088

• 研究简报 • 上一篇    

耕层重构对棉田土壤养分、微生物数量与酶活性的影响

王燕1(),张谦1,王树林1,韩硕2,冯国艺1,董明1,钱玉源1,祁虹1,*()   

  1. 1.河北省农林科学院棉花研究所/农业部黄淮海半干旱区棉花生物学与遗传育种重点实验室/国家棉花改良中心河北分中心,石家庄 050051
    2.河北省邢台广播电视大学,河北 邢台 054000
  • 收稿日期:2020-12-17 出版日期:2021-09-15 发布日期:2022-01-27
  • 通讯作者: 祁虹 E-mail:wangyan5611@126.com;qihong83@126.com
  • 作者简介:王燕(1987―),女,硕士, wangyan5611@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    河北省自然科学基金(C2019301097);棉花生物学国家重点实验室开放课题基金(CB2021A30);河北省农林科学院基本科研业务费(2021070201);国家现代农业产业技术体系(CARS-15-18);河北省农业科技成果转化资金专项(20826414D)

Effects of restructuring soil layers on soil nutrients, microbial quantities and enzyme activities in cotton field

Wang Yan1(),Zhang Qian1,Wang Shulin1,Han Shuo2,Feng Guoyi1,Dong Ming1,Qian Yuyuan1,Qi Hong1,*()   

  1. 1. Cotton Research Institute, Hebei Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences/Key Laboratory of Cotton Biology and Genetic Breeding in Huanghuaihai Semi-Arid Region, Ministry of Agriculture /Hebei Branch of National Cotton Improvement Center, Shijiazhuang 050051, China
    2. Xingtai Radio and TV University, Xingtai, Hebei 054000, China
  • Received:2020-12-17 Online:2021-09-15 Published:2022-01-27
  • Contact: Qi Hong E-mail:wangyan5611@126.com;qihong83@126.com

摘要:

【目的】研究耕层重构技术对棉田土壤微生态环境的影响,为改良土壤生态环境提供新途径和方法。【方法】2019年以冀棉315为试验材料,设置常规旋耕(对照)和耕层重构(将0~20 cm土层与20~40 cm土层土壤互换,同时松动40~60 cm土层土壤)2种耕作方式,调查棉花不同生育时期和不同土层的土壤养分含量,细菌、真菌和放线菌数量,脲酶、碱性磷酸酶和蔗糖酶活性,以及棉花产量和生物量。【结果】与对照相比,耕层重构棉田0~20 cm土层的全氮、全磷、全钾、碱解氮、速效磷、速效钾和有机质含量均降低,而20~80 cm土层的养分含量升高。耕层重构处理0~20 cm土层的细菌、真菌和放线菌数量低于对照,而20~40 cm土层的细菌、真菌和放线菌数量高于对照。与对照相比,耕层重构降低了0~20 cm土层的脲酶、碱性磷酸酶和蔗糖酶活性,提高了20~40 cm土层的脲酶、碱性磷酸酶和蔗糖酶活性。回归分析结果表明,土壤真菌数量、脲酶活性和碱性磷酸酶活性均与全磷、全氮、碱解氮、速效钾、有机质和速效磷含量呈显著线性关系。耕层重构处理棉花地上部生物量比对照显著提高8.91%,对棉花产量没有显著影响。【结论】上述研究结果初步表明,耕层重构能够提高较深土层的养分含量、微生物数量和土壤酶活性,促进较深土层的养分代谢,增加棉花生物量,改善土壤微生态环境。

关键词: 棉花; 耕层重构; 土壤; 土壤养分; 土壤微生物; 土壤酶

Abstract:

[Objective] The objective of this study is to study the effect of restructuring soil layers on the soil micro-ecological environment of cotton fields, and to provide new ways and ideas to improve the soil ecological environment. [Method] Using Jimian 315 as the experimental material, two farming methods, conventional rotary tillage (CK) and restructuring soil layers (Treatment, T), were set up to investigate soil nutrients, microbial quantities and enzyme activities in different growth periods in 2019. [Result] Compared with CK, the contents of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium and organic matter in the 0-20 cm soil layer of cotton field in T all decreased, but the nutrient content of the 20-80 cm soil layer increased. Compared with CK, the number of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes in the 0-20 cm soil layer significantly reduced in T, while the number of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes significantly increased in the 20-40 cm soil layer. Compared with CK, the activity of urease, alkaline phosphatase and sucrase decreased in 0-20 cm soil layer, while increased in 20-40 cm soil layer in T. Regression analysis results showed that the number of fungi, soil urease activity and alkaline phosphatase activity have significant linear relationships with soil fertility indexes. The overground biomass of cotton of T was 8.91% higher than that of CK, while there was no significant difference in cotton yields. [Conclusion] The results of study indicated preliminarily that restructuring soil layers improved the nutrient content, microbial quantity and soil enzymes activity of deeper soil layer, increased the nutrient metabolism intensity of deep soil layer, improved the soil micro-ecological environment, and increased cotton biomass.

Key words: cotton; restructuring soil layers; soil; soil nutrient; soil microbes; soil enzyme