欢迎访问《棉花学报》! 今天是

棉花学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (4): 307-318.doi: 10.11963/cs20200082

• 研究与进展 •    下一篇

不同种植模式棉花产量、种植效益与氮素利用率比较分析

杨长琴(),张国伟,王晓婧,刘瑞显(),倪万潮   

  1. 江苏省农业科学院经济作物研究所/农业农村部长江下游棉花与油菜重点实验室,南京 210014
  • 收稿日期:2020-10-23 出版日期:2021-07-15 发布日期:2021-09-14
  • 通讯作者: 刘瑞显 E-mail:ychq2003@qq.com;liuruixian2008@163.com
  • 作者简介:杨长琴(1972―),女,博士, ychq2003@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2017YFD0201900);国家自然科学基金(32071968);农业农村部长江下游棉花与油菜重点实验室开放课题(2017-CR01);江苏省农业科技自主创新资金(CX(18)3046)

Comparative analysis of cotton yield, benefit and nitrogen efficiency in different planting systems

Yang Changqin(),Zhang Guowei,Wang Xiaojing,Liu Ruixian(),Ni Wanchao   

  1. Institute of Industrial Crops, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Cotton and Rape in Yangtze River Downstream of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Nanjing 210014, China
  • Received:2020-10-23 Online:2021-07-15 Published:2021-09-14
  • Contact: Liu Ruixian E-mail:ychq2003@qq.com;liuruixian2008@163.com

摘要:

【目的】 研究长江流域棉区麦棉两熟种植制度下,不同种植模式对棉花产量、种植效益及氮素利用率的影响,为棉花高产高效生产提供依据。【方法】 采用裂区设计,研究麦后棉花不同种植方式(育苗移栽和直播)、品种(中熟和早熟)和氮肥运筹(不施氮和适宜氮肥运筹)对其生育进程、生物量累积与分配、产量、种植效益与氮素利用率的影响。【结果】 与育苗移栽方式相比,直播棉花生育进程快,尤其苗期缩短10~17 d;直播棉花生育中后期生物量和氮素累积量较高,且经济系数均以早熟品种较高。适宜氮肥运筹下,直播早熟品种与移栽中熟品种霜前皮棉产量均较高,且两者间差异不显著。适宜氮肥运筹下,移栽棉花的籽棉产值是直播方式的1.0~1.2倍,总成本是直播方式的1.8~2.0倍,收益仅为直播方式的23.0%~43.1%。氮素效率的结果表明,种植方式对农学利用率和氮素表观利用率的影响大于品种和氮肥运筹,直播方式的氮素农学利用率和表观利用率分别比移栽方式提高40.0%和76.4%(2017年);品种对氮素生产效率的影响大于种植方式与氮肥运筹,早熟品种的氮素生产效率比中熟品种提高45.3%(2017年)。【结论】 长江流域棉区,适宜氮肥运筹下早熟品种麦后直播有利于实现棉花高产稳产、生产总成本低而效益高;其氮素农学利用率、表观利用率和生产效率均较高,是该棉区麦后棉高产高效生产模式。

关键词: 麦棉两熟; 种植模式; 产量; 效益; 氮素利用率

Abstract:

[Objective] Field experiment was carried out to study the effect of different planting systems on lint yield, economic benefit, and nitrogen efficiency of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in the Yangtze River valley and to provide theoretical support for high yield and efficiency production of cotton. [Method] A split-plot experiment was conducted to explore the biomass accumulation and allocation characteristics, lint yield, economic benefit and nitrogen efficiency of cotton in response to different planting patterns (transplanting and field-seeded), varieties (early-maturing and medium-maturing) and nitrogen applications(no nitrogen and optimum nitrogen). [Result] The growing process fasted especially for the seedling stage under field-seeded pattern compared with that under transplanting pattern. The biomass and nitrogen accumulation at the medium-late stage of cotton under field-seeded pattern were higher than those under transplanting pattern, and the economic coefficients of early-maturing variety were higher than those of medium-maturing variety. The lint yield of the early-maturing variety under field-seeded pattern and the medium-maturity variety under transplanting pattern were higher under nitrogen application, and the difference between them was not significant. Under nitrogen application, the output value of seed cotton under transplanting pattern was 1.0-1.2 times of that under field-seeded pattern, but the cost of the former was 1.8-2.0 times of that of the latter, and the benefit of the former was only 23.0%-43.1% of the latter. The effects of planting pattern on the nitrogen agronomic efficiency (NAE) and nitrogen apparent recovery efficiency (NARE) were greater than those of variety and nitrogen application, and the NAE and NARE under field-seeded pattern were 40.0% and 76.4% (2017) higher than those under transplanting pattern. The effects of variety on nitrogen production efficiency (NPE) were greater than those of planting pattern and nitrogen application, and the NPE of early-maturing variety was 45.3% higher than medium-maturing variety in 2017. [Conclusion] The early-maturing variety with optimum nitrogen application under field-seeded pattern was conducive to higher yield, lower cost and higher benefit, and has higher NAE, NARE and NPE, which is the high yield and efficiency planting system for cotton after wheat in the Yangtze River valley.

Key words: cotton planting after wheat; planting system; yield; benefit; nitrogen efficiency