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棉花学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (1): 79-88.doi: 10.11963/1002-7807.zxwlcd.20190103

• 研究与进展 • 上一篇    

整枝方式和冠层高度对棉铃时空分布及产量的影响

朱晓伟(),刘连涛,万华龙,张永江,孙红春,李存东*()   

  1. 河北农业大学/河北省作物生长调控重点实验室,河北 保定 071000
  • 收稿日期:2018-01-16 出版日期:2019-01-15 发布日期:2019-01-15
  • 通讯作者: *李存东 E-mail:zhuxw0924@163.com;nxylcd@hebau.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:朱晓伟(1993—), 男, 硕士研究生, zhuxw0924@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31571610);国家重点研发计划(2017YFD0201900);河北省棉花产业技术体系(HBCT2018040201);河北省自然科学基金(C2016204088)

Effects of Pruning Methods and Canopy Patterns on the Temporal-Spatial Distribution of Cotton Bolls and Yield

Zhu Xiaowei(),Liu Liantao,Wan Hualong,Zhang Yongjiang,Sun Hongchun,Li Cundong*()   

  1. Hebei Agricultural University /Key laboratory of Crop Growth Regulation, Baoding, Hebei 071000, China
  • Received:2018-01-16 Online:2019-01-15 Published:2019-01-15
  • Contact: *Li Cundong E-mail:zhuxw0924@163.com;nxylcd@hebau.edu.cn

摘要:

【目的】结合整枝方式和冠层高度这两种措施,塑造良好的群体冠层结构,实现棉花增产增效。【方法】在2016—2017年以冀棉958为试验材料,采用裂区设计,在保定清苑研究不同整枝方式(去、留叶枝)和冠层高度(高矮相间冠层、矮冠层和高冠层)对棉铃时空分布、产量及产量构成因素的影响。【结果】整枝方式和冠层高度对棉铃的时空分布具有显著影响。在时间分布上,留叶枝处理相比去叶枝处理能够显著增加“三桃”(伏前桃、伏桃和秋桃)数量;高矮相间冠层与高冠层相比伏前桃数增多,但秋桃数显著减少。在空间分布上,留叶枝使果枝结铃数下降,但果枝棉铃分布较去叶枝群体更均匀,去叶枝群体下部果枝棉铃分布较多,留叶枝群体则集中在中部果枝;不同冠层结构处理的内围铃数均多于外围铃数。整枝方式和冠层高度对棉花产量形成具有显著的互作效应,以去叶枝、高矮相间群体籽棉产量最高,但其皮棉产量和留叶枝、高矮相间群体相比,并没有显著差异。【结论】塑造留叶枝、高矮相间冠层能够促使棉株中部多结铃,增加伏桃数及其比例,提高单位面积铃数,有利于形成产量,还可节省人力和物力,节约成本,因此可作为黄河流域棉区实现棉花高产高效的一项重要简化栽培措施。

关键词: 棉花; 冠层结构; 时空分布; 产量

Abstract:

[Objective] The purpose of this study was to shape the good canopy structure and achieve efficiency production of cotton. [Method] With Jimian 958 as test material, a split-plot field experiment was conducted over two years (2016—2017) to determine the effect of different pruning methods (removal and retention of vegetative branches) and canopy height treatments (high and low staggered canopy, low canopy and high canopy) on the temporal-spatial distribution of cotton bolls, yield and yield components in Baoding. [Result] Pruning method and canopy pattern had significant effects on the temporal-spatial distribution of cotton bolls. Regarding temporal distribution, retention of vegetative branch treatment (P2) significantly increased the number of total bolls (pre-summer, summer and autumn bolls) compared with removal of vegetative branch treatment (P1). Staggered canopy (C1) increased the number of pre-summer bolls but resulted in relatively fewer autumn bolls to that of the high canopy (C3) pattern. Spatial distribution of bolls varied by pruning method, with P2 treatment producing a greater number of fruit bolls concentrated in the middle part of the plant. P1 treatment produced a greater number of fruit bolls concentrated in the lower canopy. The combined effects of pruning methods and canopy pattern on seed cotton yield were significant, with the largest yield observed in P1C1 (vegetative branch removal×staggered canopy). The P1C1 group did not make significant difference in lint yield to the P2C1 (vegetative branch retention×staggered canopy) group. [Conclusion] The P2C1 canopy structure can produce a greater number of fruit bolls concentrated in the middle part of the cotton, enhance the number and proportion of summer bolls, increase the number of bolls per unit area, and produce higher yields while reducing labour usage, material resources and costs. This simplified cultivation measure offers an important opportunity to efficiently achieve high yields of cotton in the Yellow River Region.

Key words: cotton; canopy structure; temporal-spatial distribution; yield