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棉花学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (2): 163-168.doi: 10.11963/1002-7807.zdmdhz.20190313

• 研究与进展 • 上一篇    

论棉花轻简化栽培

张冬梅1(),张艳军1,李存东2,董合忠1,*()   

  1. 1.山东棉花研究中心/农业部黄淮海棉花遗传改良与栽培生理重点实验室,济南250100
    2.河北农业大学农学院,河北 保定 071000
  • 收稿日期:2018-07-19 出版日期:2019-03-15 发布日期:2019-03-15
  • 通讯作者: 董合忠 E-mail:dmzhang66@126.com;donghezhong@163.com
  • 作者简介:张冬梅(1971-),女, dmzhang66@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    山东省农业科学院科技创新工程(CXGC2016B05);山东省农业科学院科技创新工程(CXGC2018E06);国家现代农业产业技术体系——棉花产业技术体系(CARS-15-15)

On Light and Simplified Cotton Cultivation

Zhang Dongmei1(),Zhang Yanjun1,Li Cundong2,Dong Hezhong1,*()   

  1. 1. Cotton Research Center, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences/ Key Laboratory of Cotton Breeding and Cultivation in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, Ministry of Agriculture, Jinan 250100, China
    2. College of Agronomy, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding, Hebei 071000, China
  • Received:2018-07-19 Online:2019-03-15 Published:2019-03-15
  • Contact: Dong Hezhong E-mail:dmzhang66@126.com;donghezhong@163.com

摘要:

论述了棉花轻简化栽培的主要技术内容,对其发展作了展望。棉花轻简化栽培是指简化管理工序、减少作业次数,良种良法配套、农机农艺融合,实现棉花生产轻便简捷、节本增效、可持续发展的栽培管理措施和方法,是我国棉花科技工作者立足中国国情,通过对传统植棉技术创新改造而创建的新型栽培技术体系,是我国棉花生产由传统劳动密集型向轻简节本快乐型转变的重要支撑技术。棉花轻简化栽培技术体系主要包括单粒精播壮苗技术、简化整枝或免整枝技术、一次性施肥技术或水肥协同管理技术以及优化成铃集中收获等关键技术。展望未来,应在深入研究轻简化植棉生理生态学机理的基础上,进一步优化种植模式,创新完善关键栽培技术,研制新型物质装备,促进农艺技术和物质装备高度融合,为轻简化植棉提供更加有力的理论和技术支撑,推动棉花生产健康可持续发展。

关键词: 棉花; 轻简化栽培; 展望

Abstract:

The main contents of light and simplified cultivation (LSC) of cotton are discussed, and the LSC development is prospected in the paper. Light and simplified cultivation of cotton refers to the simplification and minimization of field management and operations, as well as the integration of agronomic technologies and agricultural machinery or good cotton variety to reduce production costs and labor intensity during cotton farming and cultivation, and to realize sustainable production. LSC is an important supporting technology for China's cotton production from the traditional labor intensive to the light and cost-saving, which is fully based on the national conditions of China. The new cultivation technology system was established after the innovation and transformation of traditional cotton cultivation technology. The LSC technology system mainly includes precision mono-seeding, simplified pruning or non-pruning technique, one-time fertilization technology or fertigation management technology, and optimization of boll setting through regulation of fruiting distribution and grouped harvesting technology. From the perspective of the future, we should further optimize the planting pattern, improve the key cultivation techniques of LSC, develop new material and equipment, promote the high fusion of agronomic technology and material equipment, and provide more powerful theoretical and technical support for LSC. Improved LSC will play more important roles in supporting the sustainable development of cotton production in China.

Key words: cotton; light and simplified cultivation; prospect