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棉花学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (5): 386-394.doi: 10.11963/1002-7807.xrblcd.20180929

• 研究与进展 • 上一篇    下一篇

灌溉模式对冀南植棉区棉花干物质积累分配、产量和水分利用效率的影响

徐瑞博1#,孙红春1#,刘连涛1,张永江1,刘玉春1, 2,白志英1, 3,李存东1*   

  1. 1.河北农业大学农学院/河北省作物生长调控重点实验室,河北 保定 071000;2.河北农业大学城乡建设学院,河北 保定 071000;3.河北农业大学生命科学学院,河北 保定 071000
  • 收稿日期:2018-04-02 出版日期:2018-09-15 发布日期:2018-09-15
  • 通讯作者: nxylcd@hebau.edu.cn

Effect of Irrigation Patterns on Accumulation and Distribution of Dry Matter, Yield and Water Use Efficiency of Cotton in Southern Hebei

Xu Ruibo1#, Sun Hongchun1#, Liu Liantao1, Zhang Yongjiang1, Liu Yuchun1, 2, Bai Zhiying1, 3, Li Cundong1*   

  1. 1.College of Agronomy, Hebei Agricultural University / Key Laboratory of Crop Growth Regulation of Hebei Province, Baoding, Hebei 071000, China; 2. Urban and Rural Construction College, Baoding, Hebei 071000, China; 3. College of Life Science, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding, Hebei 071000,China
  • Received:2018-04-02 Online:2018-09-15 Published:2018-09-15

摘要: 【目的】探明不同灌溉模式对冀南植棉区气候条件下土壤水分、棉花生长发育及产量的影响,确立科学的灌溉模式,提高棉花水分利用效率。【方法】以农大601为试验材料,于2016年和2017年进行大田裂区试验,设置主处理:不覆膜(NF)、覆膜(MF),副处理:畦灌(W1,600 m3·hm-2)、限量隔沟灌Ⅰ(W2,450 m3·hm-2)、限量隔沟灌Ⅱ(W3,300 m3·hm-2),其中覆膜畦灌为当地棉花常规栽培模式,在不同时期测定棉花干物质质量、产量和水分利用效率。【结果】(1)2016年和2017年干物质质量均表现为覆膜处理显著高于不覆膜处理,但覆膜条件下各水分处理间差异不显著。2016年,与NFW1 相比,NFW2、NFW3处理的干物质质量分别降低10.56%、15.00%,且达到显著水平;2017年,与NFW1相比,NFW2干物质质量显著提高11.29%,NFW3处理差异不显著。(2)2016年和2017年各处理棉花产量和水分利用效率变化趋势一致。覆膜处理下各水分处理间产量和水分利用效率差异不显著;与NFW1 相比,NFW2、NFW3处理产量分别降低10.21%~16.00%、13.63%~18.84%,水分利用效率分别降低8.33%~13.80%、9.72%~14.61%,且达到显著水平;与MFW1相比,NFW1处理产量和水分利用效率小幅降低,但差异不显著;与MFW2相比,NFW2处理产量和水分利用效率分别显著降低12.96%~16.62%、13.73%~16.51%;与MFW3相比,NFW3处理产量和水分利用效率分别显著降低15.04%~16.29%、15.03%~16.31%。【结论】在丰水年和正常降水年份,不覆膜正常畦灌处理(NFW1)能够获得较理想的产量水平,且无残膜污染;在减少灌水量条件下覆膜隔沟灌处理(MFW2、MFW3)也能获得较高产量水平,提高了水分利用效率。

关键词: 棉花; 灌溉模式; 干物质质量; 产量; 水分利用效率

Abstract: [Objective] This study examines how irrigation patterns affect soil moisture, growth and yield of cotton in southern Hebei, China. The results are used to inform irrigation patterns and improve the water use efficiency of cotton. [Method] Using the Nongda 601 cotton variety, a field split plot experiment was conducted in 2016 and 2017. The main treatments were no film (NF) and mulching film (MF), with side treatments of border irrigation (W1, 600 m3·hm-2), limited amount every-other furrow irrigation I (W2, 450 m3·hm-2) and limited amount every-other furrow irrigation II (W3, 300 m3·hm-2). Six treatments NFW1, NFW2, NFW3, MFW1, MFW2, and MFW3 were applied. The film-covered border irrigation represents the conventional cultivation mode of local cotton. Impacts were measured as dry matter mass, yield and water use efficiency. [Result] (1) Dry matter mass of MF was significantly higher than that of NF in 2016 and 2017. However, there was no significant difference in different irrigation treatments under MF. When compared with the dry matter mass of NFW1 in 2016, that of NFW2 and NFW3 were significantly lower: by 14.28% and 13.44%, respectively. In 2017, the dry matter quality of NFW2 significantly increased by 11.29% compared with that of NFW1, but NFW3 showed no significant difference. (2) Cotton yield and water use efficiency showed similar trends in both years. There was no significant difference in yield and water use efficiency for the different irrigation treatments under MF. Compared with NFW1, NFW2 and NFW3 significantly decreased by 10.21%–16.00% and 13.63%–18.84% in yield, respectively, whereas water use efficiency significantly decreased by 8.33%–13.80% and 9.72%–14.61%, respectively. Compared with MFW1, yield and water use efficiency of NFW1 decreased slightly, but not significantly. Compared with MFW2, yield and water use efficiency of NFW2 significantly decreased 12.96%–16.62% and 13.73%–16.51%, respectively. Compared with MFW3, yield and water use efficiency of NFW3 significantly decreased 15.04%–16.29% and 15.03%–16.31%, respectively. [Conclusion] In wet and normal precipitation years, the NFW1 treatment resulted in high cotton yield while preventing residual film pollution; MFW2 and MFW3 treatments also achieved high yields and improved water use efficiency when irrigation quantity was reduced.

Key words: cotton; irrigation pattern; dry matter quality; yield; water use efficiency

中图分类号: 
  • S562.01