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棉花学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (1): 54-65.doi: 10.11963/1002-7807.wsjsmz.20201104

• 研究与进展 • 上一篇    下一篇

有机肥替代对棉花养分积累、产量及土壤肥力的影响

汪苏洁(),贵会平(),董强,张恒恒,王香茹,牛静,张西岭(),宋美珍()   

  1. 中国农业科学院棉花研究所/棉花生物学国家重点实验室,河南 安阳 455000
  • 收稿日期:2019-12-19 出版日期:2021-01-15 发布日期:2021-02-25
  • 通讯作者: 张西岭,宋美珍 E-mail:wangsujie951230@163.com;huiping.828@163.com;hainan1571@163.com;songmzccri@163.com
  • 作者简介:汪苏洁(1995―),女,硕士研究生, wangsujie951230@163.com;|贵会平(1988-),女,硕士, huiping.828@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划——黄河流域棉区棉花化肥农药减施增效技术集成与示范(2017YFD0201906);中国农业科学院科技创新工程项目;中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项(1610162020020501)

Effects of organic fertilizer substitution on cotton nutrient accumulation, yield and soil fertility

Wang Sujie(),Gui Huiping(),Dong Qiang,Zhang Hengheng,Wang Xiangru,Niu Jing,Zhang Xiling(),Song Meizhen()   

  1. Institute of Cotton Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/State Key Laboratory of Cotton Biology, Anyang, Henan 455000, China
  • Received:2019-12-19 Online:2021-01-15 Published:2021-02-25
  • Contact: Zhang Xiling,Song Meizhen E-mail:wangsujie951230@163.com;huiping.828@163.com;hainan1571@163.com;songmzccri@163.com

摘要:

【目的】 研究不同有机肥替代率对黄河流域棉株生物量、养分积累、产量、氮磷比及土壤肥力的影响,试图探索出有机肥替代化肥的适宜替代率,为有机肥、无机肥在黄河流域棉田合理施用提供参考依据。【方法】 试验始于2016年,在中国农业科学院棉花研究所试验基地设置6个施肥处理:T1:不施肥,T2:100%化肥,T3:20%有机肥+80%化肥,T4:40%有机肥+60%化肥,T5:50%有机肥+50%化肥,T6:100%有机肥。经3年施肥后,2018年进行田间取样,分析不同施肥处理对棉花生物量、养分积累、产量、氮磷比及土壤肥力的影响。【结果】 (1)有机肥替代50%化肥处理提高棉株生物量、养分积累和籽棉产量。(2)与单施化肥处理相比,施用有机肥处理土壤有机质、全氮、速效磷、碱解氮含量均有增高趋势,全部施有机肥显著增加土壤速效磷含量。(3)棉株全氮、全磷积累量与棉株生物量呈极显著正相关,棉株根、茎氮磷比与籽棉产量呈极显著负相关。【结论】 有机肥替代部分化肥能减少化肥用量,连续应用有机肥替代部分化肥具有增加土壤肥力的趋势;有机肥替代50%化肥处理能增加棉花生物量、养分积累量,提高籽棉产量,替代效果最好。

关键词: 有机肥替代; 棉花; 养分积累; 产量; 土壤肥力

Abstract:

[Objective] The effects of different organic fertilizer replacement rates on cotton biomass, nutrient accumulation, yield, N:P ratio soil fertility in the Yellow River Basin were studied, and the suitable replacement rates of organic fertilizer to replace part of chemical fertilizer were explored, in order to provide reference for the rational application of organic and inorganic fertilizers in the cotton field in the Yellow River Basin. [Method]The experiment began in 2016, six fertilization treatments were set up in the experimental base of Institute of Cotton Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences. T1: no fertilization, T2: 100% chemical fertilizer, T3: 20% organic fertilizer + 80% chemical fertilizer, T4: 40% organic fertilizer + 60% chemical fertilizer, T5: 50% organic fertilizer + 50% chemical fertilizer, T6: 100% organic fertilizer. After 3 years of fertilization, field sampling was conducted in 2018 to analyze the effects of different fertilization treatments on cotton biomass, nutrient accumulation, yield, N:P ratio and soil fertility. [Result] (1) Organic fertilizer treatment instead of 50% chemical fertilizer treatment had the greatest effect on the biomass of cotton plant, the nutrient accumulation of cotton plant and cotton yields. (2) Compared with the 100% chemical fertilizer, the application of organic fertilizers increased the content of soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen, and application of 100% organic fertilizer significantly increased the content of soil available phosphorus. (3) There was a significant positive correlation between the accumulation of total nitrogen and total phosphorus of cotton plant and the biomass of cotton plant, and a significant negative correlation between the N:P ratio in root and stem and seed cotton yield. [Conclusion] Partial substitution of chemical fertilizer with organic manure could reduce chemical fertilizer use, and continuous application of organic fertilizer to replace some chemical fertilizers has a tendency to increase soil fertility. Substitution of chemical fertilizer by 50% organic fertilizer was most effective to improve cotton biomass and nutrient accumulation and increase seed cotton yield.

Key words: organic fertilizer replaces chemical fertilizer; cotton; nutrient accumulation; yield; soil fertility