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棉花学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (3): 200-208.doi: 10.11963/1002-7807.wlzbm.20210312

• 研究与进展 • 上一篇    下一篇

新疆棉区植保无人机喷施棉花脱叶催熟剂效果研究

王林1(),张强1,马江锋1,朱玉永1,田英1,李红1,毕显杰1,宋敏1,王海标1,雷天翔1,李召虎2,田晓莉2,杜明伟2,张立祯2,赵冰梅1,*()   

  1. 1.新疆生产建设兵团农业技术推广总站,乌鲁木齐 830011
    2.中国农业大学农学院/植物生长调节剂教育部工程研究中心,北京 100193
  • 收稿日期:2020-03-24 出版日期:2021-05-15 发布日期:2021-06-01
  • 通讯作者: *赵冰梅 E-mail:wlseed@126.com;zbingmei@163.com
  • 作者简介:王林(1963―),男, wlseed@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    新疆生产建设兵团科技攻关计划(2020AB017);国家重点研发计划(2018YFD0100306)

Study on the effect of spraying cotton defoliant by plant protection UAVs in Xinjiang cotton area

Wang Lin1(),Zhang Qiang1,Ma Jiangfeng1,Zhu Yuyong1,Tian Ying1,Li Hong1,Bi Xianjie1,Song Min1,Wang Haibiao1,Lei Tianxiang1,Li Zhaohu2,Tian Xiaoli2,Du Mingwei2,Zhang Lizhen2,Zhao Bingmei1,*()   

  1. 1. General Station of Agriculture Technology Extension, Xinjiang Production and Construction Crops, Urumqi 830001, China
    2. College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University / Engineering Research Center of Plant Growth Regulators, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100193, China
  • Received:2020-03-24 Online:2021-05-15 Published:2021-06-01
  • Contact: *Zhao Bingmei E-mail:wlseed@126.com;zbingmei@163.com

摘要:

【目的】明确植保无人机喷施棉花脱叶催熟剂田间作业现状、作业效果,为构建新疆生产建设兵团棉花脱叶催熟剂喷施作业技术体系以及无人机在棉花脱叶催熟作业中的推广应用提供依据。【方法】以市场主流无人机对比喷杆喷雾机进行田间试验,评价和分析不同作业区棉花脱叶和吐絮效果。【结果】药后22 d,无人机两次施药的棉花脱叶率在82.2%~92.1%,吐絮率在85.8%~100%,脱叶效果显著好于地面喷杆喷雾机一次顶喷施药,催熟效果差异不大;不同无人机以及同一无人机不同作业区,对棉花的脱叶催熟效果不同,无人机喷雾施药的8个作业区中,仅有1个能同时满足兵团棉花机械采收对脱叶率和吐絮率的要求。无人机部分施药作业中存在作业参数选择不当、作业不规范以及因无人机自身设备性能未达最优而导致的药液喷施不均匀、漏喷等现象。【结论】采用无人机喷施棉花脱叶催熟剂施药技术有待进一步优化完善。

关键词: 棉花; 植保无人机; 脱叶催熟剂; 作业效果

Abstract:

[Objective] The aim of the present study is to investigate the harvest aids efficiency applied by plant protection unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and to provide a basis for the construction of harvest aids application technology system by UAVs in Xinjiang area. [Method] Field experiments were carried out to evaluate the harvest-aid performance applied by different UAVs and ground-based machine. [Result] The defoliation rate and boll opening rate were 82.2%-92.1% and 85.8%-100% at 22 days after spraying twice by UAVs, respectively. The defoliation rate is significantly higher than that of spraying once with a ground-based machine. But the difference of boll opening rate is not obvious. In addition, the defoliation rate differs in UAVs types and spraying areas. Among the eight working areas of UAVs, only one can achieve the defoliation and boll opening rate required for mechanical harvesting of cotton. Using UVAs to spray harvest aids, improper selection of working parameters, irregular operations and poor performance of UAVs will cause uneven or missed spraying. [Conclusion] The technology of applying cotton harvest aids with UAVs needs to be further optimized.

Key words: cotton; plant protection UAVs; defoliation and ripening; spraying efficiency