欢迎访问《棉花学报》! 今天是

棉花学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (3): 209-223.doi: 10.11963/1002-7807.wjgwhj.20210331

• 研究与进展 • 上一篇    下一篇

减氮配施生物刺激素对棉花产量及氮肥吸收利用的影响

王金刚(),姜艳,田甜,朱永琪,杨振康,周天航,张文旭,佟炫梦,孙嘉祺,王海江*()   

  1. 石河子大学农学院,新疆 石河子 832000
  • 收稿日期:2020-10-19 出版日期:2021-05-15 发布日期:2021-06-02
  • 通讯作者: *王海江 E-mail:1274680853@qq.com;wanghaijiang@shzu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:王金刚(1995―),男,在读博士, 1274680853@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    国际科技合作项目(2015DFA11660);新疆生产建设兵团科技项目(2018AA004);新疆生产建设兵团科技项目(2018AA005);新疆生产建设兵团科技项目(2020AB018);石河子大学项目(RCZX201425)

Effects of nitrogen reduction combined with biostimulants on cotton yield and nitrogen absorption and utilization

Wang Jingang(),Jiang Yan,Tian Tian,Zhu Yongqi,Yang Zhenkang,Zhou Tianhang,Zhang Wengxu,Tong Xuanmeng,Sun Jiaqi,Wang Haijiang*()   

  1. Agricultural College, Shihezi University, Shihezi, Xinjiang 832000, China
  • Received:2020-10-19 Online:2021-05-15 Published:2021-06-02
  • Contact: *Wang Haijiang E-mail:1274680853@qq.com;wanghaijiang@shzu.edu.cn

摘要:

【目的】花生产中氮肥施用过量现象普遍存在。研究减氮配施不同生物刺激素黄腐酸(Fulvic acid,简称F)、壳聚糖(Chitosan,简称C)、海藻酸(Alginic acid,简称A)对棉花的生长发育及其氮素利用的影响,旨在为棉田氮素优化管理和减氮增效提供理论依据。【方法】设置棉花大田氮肥常规施用量(360 kg·hm-2,N1)、减量20%(288 kg·hm-2,N0.8)和减量40%(216 kg·hm-2,N0.6)叶面配施生物刺激素(不施刺激素0 g·kg-1,S0;黄腐酸0.12 g·kg-1,F;壳聚糖0.1 g·kg-1,C;海藻酸0.24 g·kg-1,A),分析棉花干物质积累量、叶绿素含量、可溶性蛋白含量、根系形态,收获期棉花产量、氮肥吸收总量及利用效率。【结果】适量减氮配施壳聚糖、黄腐酸和海藻酸均可促进棉花的生长,提高产量和收获期氮肥利用效率。其中,减氮40%配施壳聚糖(N0.6C)处理下棉花株高、干物质积累量、叶绿素含量、可溶性蛋白含量、产量及氮肥吸收总量均最高。初花期至盛铃期,减氮40%配施壳聚糖(N0.6C)处理的棉铃可溶性蛋白含量较N0.6S0提高41.39%,铃数、铃重和单株籽棉产量分别为7.85、6.79 g和46.47 g,较N0.6S0显著提高19.33%、25.60%和58.87%;减氮40%配施壳聚糖(N0.6C)处理在棉花收获期氮肥吸收总量最大,为10.28 g,较N0.6S0显著提高193.71%,氮肥偏生产力、氮肥农学效率、氮肥表观利用率分别较N0.6S0提高38.76%、116.45%、88.60%。减氮20%配施黄腐酸(N0.8F)对根系形态改善幅度最大,其处理的棉株根表面积、根长度、根体积、平均直径、根尖数、分支数分别为263.91 cm2、183.58 mm、0.21 mm3、0.39 cm、4 073和4 842,分别较N0.8S0提高了63.56%、28.96%、305.74%、103.22%、100.16%、105.69%。减氮20%配施海藻酸(N0.8A)较 N0.8S0显著增加棉花铃重和铃数,提高籽棉产量和氮肥利用效率。【结论】适量减氮配施壳聚糖、黄腐酸和海藻酸促进棉花株高、叶绿素含量,协调各营养器官干物质量和可溶性蛋白向铃转运,促进成熟期氮肥积累,增加铃重和铃数,提高产量和氮肥利用效率。

关键词: 棉花; 壳聚糖; 黄腐酸; 海藻酸; 氮素利用率

Abstract:

[Objective] Excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer is a common phenomenon in cotton production. The effects of nitrogen reduction combined with biostimulants on cotton growth and nitrogen utilization were studied to provide theoretical basis for optimal nitrogen management, reducing nitrogen use and improving nitrogen efficiency. [Methods] In this study, field experiments were carried out in two seasons, with a series of nitrogen levels combined with various biostimuli applied in the experimental field. Nitrogen application setup includes the standard quantity of nitrogen fertilizer (360 kg·hm-2, N1), the reduction of 20% (288 kg·hm-2, N0.8) and the reduction of 40% (216 kg·hm-2, N0.6). The biostimulant application setup includes no stimulant (0 g·kg-1, S0), fulvic acid (0.12 g·kg-1, F), chitosan (0.1 g·kg-1, C), alginic acid (0.24 g·kg-1, A). Cotton dry matter accumulation, chlorophyll content, soluble protein content, root morphology, cotton yield, total nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency in plants among the above-mentioned conditions were analyzed. [Results] Appropriate amount of nitrogen reduction combined with chitosan, fulvic acid and alginic acid promotes the growth of cotton, increases the yield and the use efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer. Cotton plant height, dry weight, chlorophyll content, soluble protein content, yield, and total nitrogen uptake reached the maximum in the 40% nitrogen reduction plus chitosan treatment. During the initial flowering stage to peak boll-setting stage, the soluble protein content in bolls from 40% nitrogen reduction plus chitosan treatment was 41.41% higher than the control, and the number of cotton buds and bolls, the single boll weight and the yield of seed cotton was 7.85, 6.79 and 46.47 g, which were significantly increased by 19.69%, 23.39%, and 37.92% compared with the control. The 40% reduction in nitrogen combined with chitosan had the largest total nitrogen uptake during the cotton harvest period, which was 11.06 g per plant, 142.37% higher than the control. The partial factor productivity of nitrogen fertilizer, the agronomic efficiency of nitrogen, and the recovery efficiency of applied nitrogen were increased by 37.93%, 247.87%, 77.53% compared with the control. Nitrogen reduction by 20% combined with fulvic acid treatment had the greatest improvement in root morphology. The root surface area, root length, root volume, average diameter, root tip number, and branch number increased by 63.56%, 28.96%, 305.74%, 103.22%, 100.16%, 105.69% than the control, respectively. The combined application of 20% nitrogen reduction plus alginic acid significantly increased cotton boll weight and boll number, and improved seed cotton yield and nitrogen use efficiency compared with N0.8S0 fertilizer application. [Conclusions] Appropriate nitrogen reduction combined with chitosan, fulvic acid and alginic acid can promote cotton plant height and chlorophyll content, optimize the accumulation of dry matter in different organs and maximize the transportation of soluble protein from vegetative organs to buds and bolls, promote nitrogen fertilizer accumulation at maturation stage, and increase boll weight and the number of bolls, and eventually increase yield and nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency.

Key words: cotton; chitin; humic acid; alginic acid; nitrogen utilization