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棉花学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (6): 464-472.doi: 10.11963/1002-7807.whlshc.20181113

• 研究与进展 • 上一篇    下一篇

早期适度干旱对棉花产量、纤维品质及水分利用效率影响

万华龙1,刘朋程1,刘连涛1,张永江1,刘玉春1,2,白志英1,3,李存东1*,孙红春1*   

  1. 1.河北农业大学/河北省作物生长调控重点实验室,河北 保定 071000;2.河北农业大学城乡建设学院,河北 保定 071000;3.河北农业大学生命科学学院,河北 保定 071000
  • 收稿日期:2018-03-14 出版日期:2018-11-15 发布日期:2018-11-15
  • 通讯作者: 李存东,nxylcd@hebau.edu.cn;孙红春,sunhongchun@126.com
  • 作者简介:万华龙(1991―),女,硕士研究生,15033128590@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    河北省棉花产业技术体系(HBCT2018040201);国家自然科学基金(31571610);河北省自然科学基金(C2016204088);河北省自然科学基金(C2016204004)

Effect of Moderate Drought in the Early Stage on Cotton Yield, Fiber Quality and Water Use Efficiency

Wan Hualong1, Liu Pengcheng1, Liu Liantao1, Zhang Yongjiang1, Liu Yuchun1,2, Bai Zhiying1,3, Li Cundong1*, Sun Hongchun1*   

  1. 1. Hebei Agricultural University/Hebei Key Laboratory of Crop Growth Regulation, Baoding, Hebei 071000, China; 2. College of Urban and Rural Construction, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding, Hebei 071000, China; 3. College of Life Science, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding, Hebei 071000, China
  • Received:2018-03-14 Online:2018-11-15 Published:2018-11-15

摘要: 【目的】本研究旨在分析早期适度干旱对棉花产量、纤维品质及水分利用效率的影响。【方法】于2015和2016年在河北农业大学清苑试验站开展大田试验,采取裂区设计,主区为灌水量:常规灌溉(W1),干旱处理(播前限量补墒,生育期不灌水,W2);副区为品种:早熟品种中棉所50(CCRI 50)、中早熟品种农大棉601(ND 601)、中熟品种冀棉958(JM 958)。【结果】(1)干旱胁迫影响棉花“三桃”(伏前桃、伏桃和秋桃)比例。干旱处理(W2)下,伏桃比例下降,秋桃比例升高;2016年较2015年降雨高峰期晚,集中在7月且偏多,使得2016年秋桃比例增加幅度较2015年大。(2)干旱胁迫显著影响棉花产量,但对纤维品质无显著影响。干旱处理下,ND 601和JM 958单株铃数和铃重降低,但结铃率显著升高,CCRI 50铃重在2015年升高;3个品种产量均下降,其中早熟品种CCRI 50对水分较敏感,产量下降幅度最大(41.0%)。(3)适度减少灌水量可以提高水分利用效率。2年结果显示,与W1相比,W2处理下中早熟ND 601和中熟JM 958水分利用效率显著升高,分别为15.75%和10.05%,但早熟品种CCRI 50棉田水分利用效率显著降低(15.9%)。【结论】干旱胁迫对早熟品种的产量和水分利用效率影响较大,可通过充分利用自然降水和增加密度来弥补水分胁迫对棉田造成的产量损失。

关键词: 棉花品种; 适度干旱; “三桃”; 产量构成因素; 纤维品质; 水分利用效率

Abstract: [Objective] A 2-year field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of a moderate drought regime in the early-stage on cotton yield, fiber quality and water use efficiency. [Method] An experiment was set up in 2015 and 2016 on the Qingyuan Experimental Plot of Hebei Agricultural University based on a split plot design with two main plots: (1) conventional irrigation (W1) and (2) drought (limited irrigation before sowing with no irrigation during the growing period, W2). Three sub-plots with different cotton cultivars were established: CCRI 50 (early maturity), Nongdamian 601 (ND 601, moderate earliness), and Jimian 958 (JM 958, intermediate maturity). [Result] (1) Drought stress affected the ratio of seasonal bolls. Under drought stress, the ratio of summer bolls decreased and that of autumn bolls increased. Because the precipitation peak in 2016 was higher than normal and mainly concentrated in July, which was later than in 2015, the ratio of autumn bolls increased in 2016. (2) Drought stress affected cotton yield but had no significant effect on fiber quality. Under moderate drought, the boll number per plant and boll weight of ND 601 and JM 958 decreased, the ratio of boll setting increased (P < 0.05), the boll weight of CCRI 50 increased, and the yields of all three cultivars decreased. Because CCRI 50 is an early-maturing cultivar and sensitive to water, its yield decreased significantly (41.0%). (3) Reducing irrigation by an appropriate amount was able to improve water use efficiency. The water use efficiencies of ND 601 and JM 958 averagely increased significantly, by 15.75% and 10.05%, respectively, between 2015 and 2016 under drought stress. The water use efficiency of CCRI 50 decreased significantly, by 15.9%, because of its early maturity and sensitivity to water stress. [Conclusion] Moderate irrigation has a significant effect on yield, fiber quality, and water use efficiency. Cotton yield losses caused by water stress can be ameliorated by making the best use of natural precipitation and by increasing planting density.

Key words: cotton cultivars; moderate drought; seasonal boll; yield components; fiber quality; water use efficiency

中图分类号: 
  • S562.01