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棉花学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (5): 395-405.doi: 10.11963/1002-7807.wfqlt.20180904

• 研究与进展 • 上一篇    下一篇

不同残膜量对棉田土壤水盐运移的影响

吴凤全1,林涛2, 3*,王静1,王亮1,严昌荣3,祖米来提·吐尔干1,邓方宁1,尔晨1,汤秋香1, 4*   

  1. 1. 新疆农业大学农学院,乌鲁木齐  830052;2. 新疆农科院经济作物研究所,乌鲁木齐  830091;3.中国农业科学院农业环境与可持续发展研究所,北京 100081;4. 农业部农业环境重点实验室,北京  100081
  • 收稿日期:2018-01-02 出版日期:2018-09-15 发布日期:2018-09-15
  • 通讯作者: 汤秋香, tangqiuxiang2004_2@163.com;林涛,lintao_xjau@163.com
  • 作者简介:吴凤全(1995-),男,2814459151@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31460143);新疆维吾尔自治区科技支疆项目(2016E02078);国家自然科学基金(31370522);新疆维吾尔自治区公益性科研院所基本科研业务经费资助项目(KY2015090);国家公益性行业(农业)科研专项经费项目(201503105)

Effect of Drip Irrigation under Film on Soil Water and Salt Movement in a Residual Film Cotton Field

Wu Fengquan1, Lin Tao2, 3*, Wang Jing1, Wang Liang1, Yan Changrong3, Zumilaiti Tuergan1,  Deng Fangning1, Er Chen1, Tang Qiuxiang1, 4*   

  1. 1. Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi 830052, China; 2. Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences Institute of Industrial Cash Crop, Urumqi 830091, China; 3. Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences / Key Laboratory of Dry land Agriculture, MOA, Beijing 100081, China; 4. Key Laboratory for Agricultural Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100081, China
  • Received:2018-01-02 Online:2018-09-15 Published:2018-09-15

摘要: 目的】为探讨滴灌条件下地膜残留量对棉田土壤水盐时空分布的影响。【方法】本试验在绿洲棉田设0 kg·hm-2、225 kg·hm-2、450 kg·hm-2三种残膜量处理,于棉花播种前、收获后及盛铃期灌水后第1天、第3天、第5天,采用土钻法分层取0~40 cm的土壤,进行土壤盐分测定并比较分析不同处理间差异。【结果】结果表明,残膜降低了膜下滴灌棉田土壤水分的均匀性,同时也导致棉田土壤盐分灌水后在各土层分布不均,灌水后第1天、第3天、第5天, 0 kg·hm-2残膜量处理随着时间推移土壤盐分在各个土层减少,而225 kg·hm-2、450 kg·hm-2处理随着时间的变化各土层在灌水后第1天到灌水后第3天土壤盐分减少,但第5天的土壤盐分大于第3天,两个处理之间无显著差异。从灌水后第1天、第3天、第5天土壤盐分分布可看出,0 kg·hm-2残膜量处理均匀性最好,其次是450 kg·hm-2处理,最后为225 kg·hm-2处理。在棉花种植播种前、收获后,不同残膜量对土壤盐分平衡的影响为:250 kg·hm-2>450 kg·hm-2>0 kg·hm-2;在运移速度上,随着深度和残膜量的增加,耕作层的土壤更容易出现土壤盐分的富集现象。【结论】由此可以说明,残膜的存在会阻碍土壤盐分的向下运移,同时随着残膜量的增加,阻碍土壤盐分的运移程度不同,导致土壤盐分在地表富集。

关键词: 地膜残留; 分平衡; 盐运移; 移速率; 集现象

Abstract: [Objective] This study explores the effect of mulching film residue on the spatial and temporal distribution of soil water and salt in a cotton field under drip irrigation. [Method] Three treatments of 0 kg·hm-2, 225 kg·hm-2 and 450 kg·hm-2 residual mulching film were applied. Soil salt content was measured and the difference between the mulching treatments was analyzed using a soil drilling method to delaminate 0–40 cm soil before cotton sowing, after harvesting and on days 1, 3 and 5 after watering during the blooming period. [Result] The results showed that residual mulching film reduced soil moisture uniformity in the drip irrigated cotton field. An uneven distribution of salt in different soil layers was also observed after irrigation. The soil salinity of the 0 kg·hm-2 residual film treatment decreased in each soil layer over time, while the soil salinity of the 225 kg·hm-2 and 450 kg·hm-2 treatments decreased 1 and 3 days after irrigation, but then increased 5 days after irrigation (non-significant difference). With respect to distribution of soil salinity following irrigation, uniformity in the 0 kg·hm-2 residual film treatment was best, followed by the 450 kg·hm-2 treatment and the 225 kg·hm-2 treatment. The effect of residual mulching film on soil salinity balance before and after sowing of cotton was as follows: 250 kg·hm-2 > 450 kg·hm-2 > 0 kg·hm-2. As the depth of the residual film increased, the enrichment of soil salts in the topsoil was more likely to occur. [Conclusion] It can be concluded that residual mulching film hinders the downward migration of soil salinity. Under conditions of elevated residual mulching film, the soil salinity migration is disrupted to the degree that soil salt enrichment occurs at the soil surface.

Key words:   plasti; film residue; salt balance; water and salt migration; migration rate; enrichment phenomenon

中图分类号: 
  • S562.04