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棉花学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (2): 145-154.doi: 10.11963/1002-7807.sxhygz.20180315

• 研究与进展 • 上一篇    下一篇

氮肥用量及其后效对棉花产量和生物质累积动态的影响

宋兴虎,Tufail Ahmed Wagan,Biangkham Souliyanonh,Saif Ali,黄颖,袁源,杨国正*   

  1. 华中农业大学/农业部长江中游作物生理生态与耕作重点实验室,武汉 430070
  • 收稿日期:2016-12-09 出版日期:2018-03-15 发布日期:2018-03-15
  • 通讯作者: ygzh9999@mail.hzau.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:宋兴虎(1991―),男,硕士研究生,songxh0044@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31271665)

Nitrogen Fertilizer and Its Residual Effect on Cotton Yield and Biomass Accumulation

Song Xinghu, Tufail Ahmed Wagan, Biangkham Souliyanonh, Saif Ali, Huang Ying, Yuan Yuan, Yang Guozheng*   

  1. Huazhong Agricultural University/ Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in the Middle Reaches of Yangtze River, Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan 430070, China
  • Received:2016-12-09 Online:2018-03-15 Published:2018-03-15

摘要: 【目的】长江流域棉花适宜氮肥用量为300 kg·hm-2,在迟播高密度下可减少为225 kg·hm-2,而不影响产量。本研究旨在探讨迟播高密度下于见花期一次性施用氮肥,氮肥用量进一步减少的可行性、氮肥后效及其对棉花产量形成规律的影响。【方法】采用盆栽试验,2014年设5个氮肥水平(120、150、180、210、240 kg·hm-2),2015年设置相同氮肥用量(180 kg·hm-2),研究棉花生育进程、产量及其构成以及生物质累积动态。【结果】氮肥用量显著影响棉花生物质累积和产量而不影响生育进程,氮肥后效不明显。施氮量为180 kg·hm-2时籽棉产量(30.5 g·plant-1)和铃重(3.8 g)最高,生物质累积量较大,且生物质快速累积期生殖器官生物量所占比例最大,为64.4%。【结论】在中等肥力棉田氮肥用量减为180 kg·hm-2是可行的,因为其快速累积期生殖器官生物质累积强度增加。

关键词: 棉花(Gossypium hirsutum L.); 氮肥; 生物质累积; 产量; 快速累积期; 最大累积速率

Abstract: [Objective] The optimum nitrogen rate of 300 kg·hm-2 is well documented for cotton in the Yangtze River Valley, China. It can be reduced to 225 kg·hm-2 without reducing yield in late sowing under high planting density. The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of further reducing the nitrogen application rate at the first flower stage, its residual effects and influence on cotton yield formation rule. [Method] A pot experiment was conducted with five nitrogen levels (120, 150, 180, 210 and 240 kg·hm-2) in 2014, but only 180 kg·hm-2(for studying nitrogen residual effect) in 2015, to study the cotton growth process, yield and its components and biomass accumulation. [Result] Nitrogen levels significantly affected the yield and biomass accumulation, but not the growth process and nitrogen residual effect. Maximum seed cotton yield (30.5 g·plant-1), boll weight (3.8 g) and biomass accumulation, especially in the reproductive and vegetative organs, was recorded in the 180 kg·hm-2 nitrogen treatment. In the rapid accumulation period, the proportion of biomass accumulation in the reproductive organs was the highest. [Conclusion] In a soil with medium fertility level, the application of 180 kg·hm-2 nitrogen was optimal, because the strength of biomass accumulation in reproductive organs increased during the rapid accumulation period.

Key words: cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.); nitrogen; biomass; yield; rapid accumulation period; maximum accumulation speed

中图分类号: 
  • S562.06