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棉花学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (3): 235-246.doi: 10.11963/1002-7807.sllgy.20210423

• 研究与进展 • 上一篇    下一篇

新疆棉花茎腐病的病原鉴定及其生物学特性研究

孙璘1,海艳1,唐晓雪1,祖丽皮亚·艾买2,焦瑞莲1,任毓忠1,*(),李国英1,*()   

  1. 1.石河子大学农学院/新疆绿洲农业病虫害治理与植保资源利用重点实验室,新疆 石河子 832003
    2.石河子市种子管理站,新疆 石河子 832000
  • 收稿日期:2021-01-04 出版日期:2021-05-15 发布日期:2021-06-02
  • 通讯作者: *任毓忠,李国英 E-mail:404350315@qq.com;lgy_agr@shzu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    科技部中小企业创新项目(14C26216513812);国家重点研发计划(2017YFD0201900)

Identification and biological characteristics of the pathogens of cotton stem rot in Xinjiang

Sun Lin1,Hai Yan1,Tang Xiaoxue1,Zulipiya Aimai2,Jiao Ruilian1,Ren Yuzhong1,*(),Li Guoying1,*()   

  1. 1. College of Agriculture/Key Laboratory of Oasis Agricultural Pest Management and Plant Protection Resources Utilization, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Shihezi University, Shihezi, Xinjiang 832003, China
    2. Seed Management Station, Shihezi, Xinjiang 832000, China
  • Received:2021-01-04 Online:2021-05-15 Published:2021-06-02
  • Contact: *Ren Yuzhong,Li Guoying E-mail:404350315@qq.com;lgy_agr@shzu.edu.cn

摘要:

【目的】自2016年以来在新疆棉田发现1种棉花茎腐病,在潮湿环境下,该病害可导致棉花茎秆上产生纵裂和表皮组织崩溃等腐烂症状;在干燥环境下,病斑扩展明显变慢,甚至不再扩展,呈现坏死斑症状,严重时会导致茎秆枯死。明确其病原种类及生物学特性对病害防治至关重要。【方法】从南北疆11个地点采集病样18份。采用组织分离法分离病原,经单孢纯化,共获得20株代表性菌株。利用形态学、分子生物学方法对病原进行种的鉴定,并测定菌株的致病性及其代表性菌株在不同温度、光照、pH和培养基条件下的生物学特性和致死温度,了解适宜生长、产孢条件。【结果】引起新疆棉花茎腐病病原为Fusarium incarnatumF. proliferatum,其中F. incarnatum为优势种。适于2种病原菌生长和产孢的温度均为25 ℃;光照有利于F. incarnatum生长,黑暗培养有利于二者产孢。二者生长的最适pH均为8,产孢的最适pH均为7。在马铃薯蔗糖琼脂培养基、马铃薯葡萄糖琼脂培养基上,二者生长和产孢较好。F. incarnatumF. proliferatum孢子的致死温度分别为48 ℃、60 ℃,菌丝的致死温度分别为50 ℃、61 ℃。【结论】引起新疆棉花茎腐病的病原菌为F. incarnatumF. proliferatum,其中F. incarnatum为优势种。20~30 ℃、pH 7~8和全光照条件有利于其生长,黑暗条件有利于其产孢,马铃薯蔗糖琼脂培养基和马铃薯葡萄糖培养基均有利于其生长和产孢。

关键词: 棉花; 茎腐病; 病原鉴定; 生物学特性; 培养条件; 致死温度

Abstract:

[Objective] A cotton stem rot disease has been observed in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China since 2016. In wet conditions, part of the diseased stem can produce rot symptoms such as longitudinal cracks and collapse of epidermal tissue; in dry conditions, the expansion of the diseased spots is significantly slower, or even no longer expands, showing symptoms of necrotic spots. In severe cases, the stems will die. Hence, it is vital to understand the species and biological characteristics of pathogens for disease control. [Method] A total of 18 stems of cotton with symptoms rot were collected from 11 cotton planting locations in the north and south of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. The pathogens were isolated and purified by conventional dilution separation and 20 representative strains were obtained by single spore purification. The pathogens were identified by morphology, molecular biology, and pathogenicity. To understand the suitable conditions for the growth and sporulation of the pathogens, the biological characteristics of the pathogens such as different temperatures, light, pH values, media and lethal temperatures were tested. [Result]The pathogens of cotton stem rot in Xinjiang were Fusarium incarnatum and F. proliferatum, among which F. incarnatum was the dominant species. The suitable temperature for the growth and sporulation of the two pathogens are 25 ℃. Light is beneficial to the growth of F. incarnatum, and dark culture is beneficial to the sporulation of two pathogens. The optimal pH for the growth of these two pathogens is 8, and the optimal pH for sporulation is 7. These two kinds of pathogens grow and produce spores better on potato sucrose agar and potato dextrose agar. The lethal temperatures of F. incarnatum and F. proliferatum spores were 48 ℃ and 60 ℃, respectively, and the lethal temperatures of hyphae were 50 ℃ and 61 ℃, respectively. [Conclusion] The pathogens of cotton stem rot in Xinjiang were F. incarnatum and F. proliferatum. F. incarnatum was identified as the dominant species. It is beneficial to the growth of the two species of Fusarium under the conditions of 20-30 ℃, pH 7-8 and full light; and the spore will be more productive under dark. Both potato sucrose agar and potato dextrose agar medium are beneficial to the growth and sporulation of the two pathogens.

Key words: cotton; stem rot; pathogen identification; biological characteristics; cultural condition; lethal temperature