欢迎访问《棉花学报》! 今天是

棉花学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (1): 1-12.doi: 10.11963/1002-7807.lxymp.20201207

• 研究与进展 •    下一篇

棉铃疫病人工接种方法优化及应用

鹿秀云1(),商俊燕1,邵美琪2,谢雪娇1,郭庆港1,李社增1,马平1,*()   

  1. 1.河北省农林科学院植物保护研究所/农业农村部华北北部作物有害生物综合治理重点实验室/河北省农业有害生物综合防治工程技术中心,河北 保定071000
    2.河北农业大学,河北 保定071000
  • 收稿日期:2020-08-17 出版日期:2021-01-15 发布日期:2021-02-24
  • 通讯作者: 马平 E-mail:luxiuyun03@163.com;pingma88@126.com
  • 作者简介:鹿秀云(1975―),女,硕士, luxiuyun03@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2017YFD0201900);国家现代农业产业技术体系(CARS-15-18);河北省现代农业产业技术体系(HBCT2018040204)

Optimization and application of an artificial inoculation method for cotton boll blight

Lu Xiuyun1(),Shang Junyan1,Shao Meiqi2,Xie Xuejiao1,Guo Qinggang1,Li Shezeng1,Ma Ping1,*()   

  1. 1. Institute of Plant Protection, Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences/Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management on Crops in Northern Region of North China, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs/IPM Center of Hebei Province, Baoding, Hebei 071000, China
    2. Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding, Hebei 071000, China
  • Received:2020-08-17 Online:2021-01-15 Published:2021-02-24
  • Contact: Ma Ping E-mail:luxiuyun03@163.com;pingma88@126.com

摘要:

【目的】 棉铃疫病是严重危害棉花生产的铃部病害。本研究旨在优化棉铃疫菌(苎麻疫霉,Phytophthora boehmeriae)的人工接种方法并有效应用。【方法】 在室内保湿培养条件下,比较了棉株不同部位健康成铃自身携带棉铃疫菌的情况;利用贴接棉铃疫菌菌盘的方法,比较了棉铃表面消毒和不消毒、有伤和无伤接种对棉铃疫病发病情况的影响;建立棉铃疫病人工接种方法并应用于防治棉铃疫病化学药剂筛选、棉花品种抗病性鉴定和棉铃疫菌致病力检测。【结果】 田间棉株下部第1~3果枝铃的棉铃疫病发病率显著高于中部第4~6果枝铃、中部第7~9果枝铃和上部第10~12果枝铃;75%(体积分数,下同)酒精浸泡棉铃2 min能够有效杀死棉铃表面携带的棉铃疫菌和其他真菌等杂菌;有伤接种棉铃疫菌,棉铃疫病发病快且均匀。建立了棉铃疫病快速人工接种方法:选取棉株中部第4~9果枝上的健康带柄成铃,去掉苞叶,用75%酒精浸泡消毒2 min,在棉铃中上部铃缝处针刺接种棉铃疫菌,25 ℃保湿培养3~7 d即可完全发病。应用优化的棉铃疫病人工接种方法筛选、鉴定结果表明,12种化学杀卵菌剂中,对棉铃疫病防效理想的药剂为25%(质量分数,下同)甲霜·霜霉威可湿性粉剂、70%丙森锌可湿性粉剂和52.5%噁酮·霜脲氰水分散粒剂;16个棉花品种对棉铃疫病存在抗性差异;10个棉铃疫菌菌株中JP18-4的致病力最强,JP15-2对棉铃的致病力最弱。【结论】 本研究优化建立了棉铃疫病人工接种方法。该方法在7 d内即可完成棉铃疫病相关试验的评价,为加快棉铃疫病防治药剂筛选、棉花品种抗病性鉴定和棉铃疫菌致病力检测提供可行的技术。

关键词: 棉铃疫病; 苎麻疫霉; 人工接种; 方法优化

Abstract:

[Objective] Cotton boll blight, which caused by Phytophthora boehmeriae, is one of the most important diseases of cotton boll rot. The aim of this study was to optimize the artificial inoculation method of cotton boll blight and to apply for further studies. [Method] The population of P. boehmeriae in adult bolls sampled from different parts of cotton plant was compared under the suitable culture conditions. The disease occurrences of surface sterilization and non-sterilization, as well as injury and non-injury cotton bolls inoculated with P. boehmeriae were compared. The artificial inoculation method of cotton boll blight was established through pathogenesis tests and used to screen 12 kind of chemicals against the disease, to identify the resistances of 16 cotton varieties and to test the pathogenicity of 10 strains of P. boehmeriae. [Result] The disease incidence of the boll from the 1-3rd fruit branches was more serious than that from the 4-6th fruit branches, the 7-9th fruit branches and the 10-12th fruit branches. P. boehmeriae and other microorganisms on cotton boll surface could be eliminated by soaking cotton bolls in 75% (volume fraction) alcohol for 2 min. Cotton bolls from the 4-9th fruit branches of cotton were soaked in 75% alcohol for 2 min, and then wounded with sewing needles on the middle and upper part of the cotton bolls. The wounded parts of cotton bolls were inoculated with the mycelium disks of P. boehmeriae. Cotton boll blight occurred completely in 3-7 d under moisture culture at 25 ℃. Among the 12 kind of chemical fungicides, 25% (mass fraction) Metalaxyl propamocarb hydrochloride wettable powder (WP), 70% Propineb WP and 52.5% Famoxadone cymoxanil wettable granule (WG) showed significant control effects against cotton boll blight with the artificial inoculation. For 16 cotton varieties, there were differences in resistance to the disease. Among the 10 strains of P. boehmeriae, JP18-4 showed the highest pathogenicity, while JP15-2 showed the lowest. [Conclusion] Artificial inoculation method of cotton boll blight was established and optimized in this study. The method can be used for screening control agents against cotton boll blight and the identification of resistant cotton varieties and pathogenicity difference of P. boehmeriae.

Key words: cotton boll blight; Phytophthora boehmeriae; artificial inoculation; method optimization