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棉花学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (1): 71-82.doi: 10.11963/1002-7807.lwmzb20171124

• 研究与进展 • 上一篇    下一篇

去赘芽和打边心对棉花源库活性的调节及产量和品质的影响

刘伟1,徐凤丹1,朱伟1,马宗斌1*,严根土2,李伶俐1,汪敏1   

  1. 1. 河南农业大学/河南粮食作物协同创新中心,郑州 450002;2. 中国农业科学院棉花研究所/棉花生物学国家重点实验室,河南 安阳 455000
  • 收稿日期:2017-03-09 出版日期:2018-01-15 发布日期:2018-01-15
  • 通讯作者: zongbinma@163.com
  • 作者简介:刘伟(1989―),女,博士,讲师,lw6051@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    河南省棉花产业技术体系建设专项资金项目(S2013-07-G04)

Effects of Removal of Redundant Buds and Topping of Fruiting Branches on Source-Sink Activity, Yield, and Fiber Quality of Cotton

Liu Wei1, Xu Fengdan1, Zhu Wei1, Ma Zongbin1*, Yan Gentu2, Li Lingli1, Wang Min1   

  1. 1. Henan Agricultural University/Collaborative Innovation Center of Henan Grain Crops, Zhengzhou 450002, China; 2. Institute of Cotton Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/State Key Laboratory of Cotton Biology, Anyang, Henan 455000, China
  • Received:2017-03-09 Online:2018-01-15 Published:2018-01-15

摘要: 【目的】探讨棉花赘芽和边心对源库活性的调节作用及对产量和品质的影响,为棉花简化整枝提供科学依据。【方法】2014-2015年在郑州市惠济区黄河滩地,选用鲁棉研28号品种,设计去赘芽、打边心和去赘芽+打边心3个处理,以不去赘芽不打边心为对照(CK),调查测定了不同处理下棉花源库大小及活性、产量性状、纤维品质和经济效益。【结果】与CK相比,去赘芽和打边心的3个处理在棉花生育后期可以维持较高LAI(Leaf area index)和干物质积累量,库/源比较高;在棉花生育中期,叶“源”中IAA(Indoleacetic acid)含量和SOD(Superoxide dismutase)活性较高,ABA(Abscisic acid)含量较低;从铃“库”来看,伏前桃和伏桃的棉籽中IAA含量和SOD活性较高,ABA含量较低,而伏前桃和伏桃的纤维表现正好与棉籽相反;去赘芽、打边心和去赘芽+打边心处理的皮棉单产分别提高4.43%、5.17%和9.31%,但处理间差异不显著。去边心对产量的效应大于去赘芽,且两者具有累加效应;去赘芽和打边心对棉花纤维品质无明显影响;打边心能稳定增加纯收入,但去赘芽减收,去赘芽+打边心增效不够稳定。【结论】棉花去赘芽和打边心总体上能协调源库关系,提高源库活性,可以增产但不显著,效益也不够理想。因此,在棉花规模化生产时,可以采用简化整枝,即不去赘芽、不打边心。

关键词: 棉花; 赘芽; 边心; 源库; 产量; 纤维品质

Abstract: [Objective] Removal of redundant buds and decapitation of fruiting branches are important pruning measures for cotton production. The effects of the two procedures on source–sink activity, yield, and fiber quality were studied to provide a scientific basis for a simplified pruning method. [Method] A field trial was carried out in bottomland of the Yellow River valley, Zhengzhou, Henan Province in 2014–2015 using cotton ‘Lumianyan 28’. Treatments consisted of removal of redundant buds, decapitation of fruiting branches, and removal of redundant buds and decapitation of fruiting branches in combination (RDR treatments). Redundant buds and tops of fruiting branches were retained in the control (CK). The source–sink size and activity, yield traits, fiber quality, and economic return were recorded. [Result] The RDR treatments increased the leaf area index and total dry matter accumulation, and increased the sink-source ratio at advanced growth stages compared with CK. In the middle growth period, the RDR treatments increased indoleacetic acid (IAA) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and decreased abscisic acid (ABA) content in the leaf. Moreover, the RDR treatments increased IAA content and SOD activity, and decreased ABA content in seeds of pre-summer bolls and summer bolls, whereas the IAA and ABA contents and SOD activity in fibers showed the opposite trend to that of seeds. The lint yield following removal of redundant buds, decapitation of fruiting branches, and combined removal of redundant buds and decapitation of fruiting branches was increased by 4.43%, 5.17%, and 9.31%, respectively, but no significant difference was observed among these treatments. Decapitation of fruiting branches had a more marked effect on yield than removal of redundant buds, and these two treatments applied in combination had a cumulative effect on yield. The RDR treatments had no significant effect on fiber quality. Decapitation of fruiting branches increased economic return, but removal of redundant buds reduced economic return, and the effect on economic return of removal of redundant buds and decapitation of fruiting branches in combination was inconsistent. [Conclusion] The RDR treatments generally improved the source–sink relationship, enhanced source and sink activity, and increased cotton yield. However, the increase in yield and economic benefits were less marked. We recommend simplified pruning techniques without removal of redundant buds and decapitation of fruiting branches for large-scale cultivation of cotton.

Key words: cotton; redundant buds; tops of fruiting branches; source-sink; yield; fiber quality

中图分类号: 
  • S562.01