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棉花学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (2): 172-179.doi: 10.11963/1002-7807.lqjfg.20180305

• 研究与进展 • 上一篇    下一篇

膜下滴灌棉花对3种水溶性磷肥的利用效率和产量响应

李青军1,2,3,张 炎2,3,哈丽哈什·依巴提2,3,冯固1*   

  1. 1. 中国农业大学资源与环境学院,北京100193;2. 新疆农业科学院土壤肥料与农业节水研究所,乌鲁木齐830091;3. 农业部荒漠绿洲作物生理生态与耕作重点实验室,乌鲁木齐830091
  • 收稿日期:2017-12-05 出版日期:2018-03-15 发布日期:2018-03-15
  • 通讯作者: fenggu@cau.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:李青军 (1979―),男,博士研究生, gyqc@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2017YFD0200200、2016YFD0200102);国家自然科学基金(41161039)

Phosphorus Utilization Efficiency and Yield Responses of Drip Irrigated Cotton under Plastic Film Mulching to Three Types of Water Soluble Phosphorus Fertilizers

Li Qingjun1,2,3, Zhang Yan2,3, Harlhax Yibat2,3, Feng Gu1*   

  1. 1. College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China; 2. Institute of Soil Fertilizer and Agricultural Water-Saving, Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Urumqi 830091, China; 3. Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in Desert Oasis Region, Ministry of Agriculture, Urumqi 830091, China
  • Received:2017-12-05 Online:2018-03-15 Published:2018-03-15

摘要: 【目的】比较膜下滴灌条件下不同磷肥品种在棉花上的肥效及其利用率的差异,以选择合适的磷肥品种,提高磷肥利用率和效益。【方法】2015―2016年连续2年进行了田间试验。试验共设4个处理:不施磷肥(P0)、施用磷酸一铵(MAP)、施用磷酸二铵(DAP)和施用重过磷酸钙(TSP),磷肥全部基施。各处理的氮钾用量相同,氮肥除了磷肥所含的氮外,其余以尿素施入,其中10% 氮素在播种前作底肥基施,90%氮素作追肥随水滴施,钾肥全部基施。于棉花成熟期测定棉株生物量、皮棉产量、磷素吸收量和土壤有效磷。【结果】与不施磷相比,MAP、DAP和TSP处理的皮棉产量分别增加11.01%、6.97%和8.51%,地上部干物质质量分别增加10.96%、4.86%和8.36%。MAP比DAP显著增加了棉花干物质质量和产量,分别增加5.82%和3.78%,但与TSP没有显著差异。施用磷肥显著增加棉花的磷素吸收量,MAP、DAP和TSP的磷肥平均利用率分别为26%、22%和24%。施用磷肥能够提高植棉效益,其中施用MAP的收益最高,比施用DAP和TSP分别增加1 261元·hm-2和580元·hm-2。但施用MAP、DAP和TSP的土壤有效磷(收获后)没有显著差异。【结论】施用MAP、DAP和TSP都能够显著提高棉花产量,增加植棉效益,其收益大小为MAP>TSP>DAP。

关键词: 棉花; 磷肥; 利用效率; 产量; 收益

Abstract: [Objective] To select suitable phosphate fertilizer types for drip irrigated cotton under plastic film mulching in calcareous soil, the lint yield responses and phosphorus (P) utilization rate of cotton to three types of water soluble P fertilizer were compared. [Method] Two-year field trials were conducted with four treatments including no P fertilizer (P0), monoammonium phosphate (MAP), diammonium phosphate (DAP) and triple superphosphate (TSP). All P fertilizers and potassium fertilizer as potassium chloride were applied as base fertilizer before sowing. To maintain nutrient balance, additional nitrogen was applied as urea. Ten percent of nitrogen was applied as base fertilizer before seeding, and 90% of nitrogen was applied with drip irrigation. The cotton dry matter, lint yield, P uptake and soil available P were measured at harvest. [Result] When compared with the no P fertilizer control, the lint yields of MAP, DAP and TSP increased by 11.01%, 6.97% and 8.52%, respectively, and shoot dry matter increased by 10.96%, 4.86% and 8.36%, respectively. MAP significantly increased the shoot dry matter and lint yield of cotton when compared with DAP but not TSP. Application of the three P fertilizers significantly increased P uptake of cotton, and average utilization rates of MAP, DAP and TSP were 26%, 22% and 24%, respectively. Input of P fertilizers improved economic benefit. The profit from MAP use was higher than that of DAP and TSP. However, the effects of MAP, DAP and TSP on soil available P were not significant. [Conclusion] Application of MAP, DAP and TSP could significantly increase cotton yield and economic benefit, with the effect of P fertilizers in the order of MAP > TSP > DAP.

Key words: cotton; phosphate fertilizer; utilization efficiency; yield; benefit

中图分类号: 
  • S562.062