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棉花学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (2): 147-155.doi: 10.11963/1002-7807.ghhdhz.20190315

• 研究与进展 • 上一篇    下一篇

棉花/芝麻间作模式对作物生长和产量的影响

宫慧慧(),张玉娟,赵军胜,李振怀,卢合全,徐士振,赵逢涛,孟庆华,董合忠*()   

  1. 山东棉花研究中心,济南 250100
  • 收稿日期:2018-07-19 出版日期:2019-03-15 发布日期:2019-03-15
  • 通讯作者: 董合忠 E-mail:gh_yt@126.com;donghezhong@163.com
  • 作者简介:宫慧慧(1982—),女,硕士研究生,助理研究员, gh_yt@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    山东省农业科学科技创新工程(CXGC2018E06);农业部油料作物生物学与遗传育种重点实验室开放课题(KF2018003)

Effects of Cotton/Sesame Intercropping Patterns on Crop Growth and Yield

Gong Huihui(),Zhang Yujuan,Zhao Junsheng,Li Zhenhuai,Lu Hequan,Xu Shizhen,Zhao Fengtao,Meng Qinghua,Dong Hezhong*()   

  1. Cotton Research Center, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan 250100, China
  • Received:2018-07-19 Online:2019-03-15 Published:2019-03-15
  • Contact: Dong Hezhong E-mail:gh_yt@126.com;donghezhong@163.com

摘要:

【目的】间作是提高土地和资源利用率的1种集约化种植方式。本研究旨在探讨棉花/芝麻间作的优劣势,并寻找棉花/芝麻间作最佳种植模式。【方法】以等行距单作棉花(Tc1)、大小行单作棉花(Tc2)和单作芝麻(Ts)为对照,设计棉花、芝麻的间作方式分别为1-1式(棉花行距80 cm,棉花行间种植1行芝麻),2-1式(棉花大小行种植,宽行中间种植1行芝麻),2-2式(棉花大小行种植,宽行中间种植2 行芝麻)3种间作模式,比较研究了不同间作模式对棉花/芝麻产量及产量构成因子、叶面积动态和干物质积累的影响,并采用土地当量比(LER)分析了不同间作模式的土地利用效率及间作优劣势。【结果】与单作棉花或单作芝麻相比,所有间作模式皆降低棉花或芝麻的产量,但2-1式间作中棉花籽棉产量与单作棉花Tc1、Tc2相比仅略降低,差异不明显;1-1式间作模式下2年平均籽棉产量、株高、单株成铃数和铃重比Tc1 分别降低了17.3%、7.9%、19.7%和7.9%;2-2式间作的籽棉产量、株高、单株成铃数和铃重比Tc2 分别降低16.4%、5.81%、14.8% 和6.2%。间作系统中棉花与芝麻的混合产量和综合经济效益皆高于棉花和芝麻单作。与单作相比,间作显著提高了群体的叶面积指数,增加了单位面积干物质积累总量。2015年、2016 年的LER分别为1~1.24和0.91~1.16。【结论】棉花/芝麻间作的LER大于1,间作的混合产量和综合经济效益高于棉花和芝麻单作,两者具有间作优势。2-1式间作既不影响棉花产量又增收一茬芝麻,且易于栽培管理,是可行的栽培模式。

关键词: 棉花; 芝麻; 间作; 产量; 产量构成; 土地当量比

Abstract:

[Objective] Intercropping as an intensive planting method, could increase the utilization ratio of land and resources. The study aimed to explore the advantages and disadvantages of cotton/sesame intercropping, and then find out the best planting pattern of cotton/sesame intercropping. [Method] Equidistant row monocropping cotton (Tc1), wide narrow row monocropping cotton (Tc2) and monocropping sesame (Ts) were used as control. We designed three intercropping patterns as follows: 1-1 pattern (cotton row spacing was 80 cm, one row of sesame was planted in the two row spacing), 2-1 pattern (cotton grown in wide-narrow-row, one row of sesame was planted in the wide row spacing), and 2-2 pattern (cotton grown in wide-narrow-row, two rows of sesame were planted in the wide row spacing). The effects of different intercropping patterns on cotton/sesame yield, yield components, leaf area index dynamic change and dry matter accumulation were investigated. The land equivalent ratio was used as an index to assess the land use efficiency. [Result] The results showed that cotton/sesame yield were significantiy affected by different intercropping patterns. However, the seed cotton yield decreased only slightly in 2-1 intercropping pattern. Two years average showed that, the seed cotton yield, plant height, boll number of per plant and boll weight in 1-1 pattern were reduced by 17.3%, 7.9%, 19.7% and 7.9% compared with Tc1, respectively. In the treatment of 2-2 model, which reduced by 16.4%, 5.81%, 14.8% and 6.2% in comparison with Tc2. But in the intercropping systems, the mixed yield and comprehensive economic benefit of cotton and sesame were higher than those of cotton and sesame monoculture. The leaf area index of the group and the total amount of dry matter accumulation in unit area increased significantly under cotton/sesame intercropping systems. The land equivalent ratios in 2015 and 2016 were from 1 to 1.24 and 0.91 to 1.16, respectively. [Conclusion] Under different cotton/sesame intercropping systems, the mixed yield and total economic benefit were higher than that of monocropping cotton or sesame. The 2-1 cotton/sesame intercropping pattern occupied the most optimal production performance and easy to cultivate, which was the practicable intercropping patterns in sustainable development.

Key words: cotton; sesame; intercropping; yield; yield components; land equivalent ratio