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棉花学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (5): 375-385.doi: 10.11963/1002-7807.fzlzhq.20181008

• 研究与进展 • 上一篇    下一篇

浓缩沼液对棉花黄萎病的防治作用及机理

冯自力1,董泰丽2,赵丽红1,付传翠2,李云卿3,师勇强1,冯鸿杰1,魏锋1,张东明2*,朱荷琴1*   

  1. 1.棉花生物学国家重点实验室/中国农业科学院棉花研究所,河南 安阳 455000;2.山东民和生物科技有限公司,山东 蓬莱 265600;3.中国农业科学院植物保护研究所/植物病虫害生物学国家重点实验室,北京 100193
  • 收稿日期:2018-08-13 出版日期:2018-09-15 发布日期:2018-09-15
  • 通讯作者: 朱荷琴,heqinanyang@163.com;张东明,plwjn163@163.com
  • 作者简介:冯自力(1980-),男,副研究员,fzlsky@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    农业部公益性行业(农业)科研专项(201503109);国家重点研发计划(2017YFD0201906)

The Control Effect and Mechanism of Concentrated Biogas Slurry on Verticillium Wilt of Upland Cotton

Feng Zili1, Dong Taili2, Zhao Lihong1, Fu Chuancui2, Li Yunqing3, Shi Yongqiang1, Feng Hongjie1, Wei Feng1, Zhang Dongming2*, Zhu Heqin1*   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Cotton Biology /Institute of Cotton Research of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Anyang, Henan 455000, China; 2. Shandong Minhe Biotechnology Co. Ltd, Penglai, Shangdong 265600, China; 3. State Key Laboratory for the Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China
  • Received:2018-08-13 Online:2018-09-15 Published:2018-09-15

摘要: 【目的】明确浓缩沼液对棉花黄萎病的防治效果及作用机理。【方法】采用菌丝生长速率法、凹玻片法、悬滴法等测定了其对棉花黄萎病菌(Verticillium dahliae)的抑制作用;利用盆栽试验评价了叶面喷施、灌根处理对棉花黄萎病的防治效果;通过活性氧爆发研究其诱导抗病能力;用实时荧光定量逆转录聚合酶链反应(Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction,RT-qPCR)检测了相关防御基因的表达情况。【结果】浓缩沼液可以显著抑制棉花黄萎病菌菌丝生长、产孢量、分生孢子萌发、微菌核萌发,其挥发性气体可以导致菌丝畸形、断裂;温室环境下,0.50%(体积分数,下同)的稀释液喷施2次对黄萎病防治效果为64.89%,1.25%的稀释液灌根2次对黄萎病防治效果为78.01%;在重病地,浓缩沼液120 L·hm-2滴灌防治棉花黄萎病效果最佳。浓缩沼液灌根处理诱导了棉花叶片活性氧爆发,增强了过氧化物酶、几丁质酶、β-1,3-葡聚糖酶、杜松烯合酶、苯丙氨酸解氨酶、多酚氧化酶基因的表达,从而抑制了棉花黄萎病菌在植物体内的存活、扩展。【结论】浓缩沼液能够通过抑制病原菌及增强棉花防御酶基因的表达有效防控棉花黄萎病。

关键词: 棉花; 黄萎病; 浓缩沼液; 防治效果; 防御基因

Abstract: [Objective] This study investigated the effect of concentrated biogas slurry on Verticillium wilt of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and determine the mechanism of any observed impacts. [Method] The inhibition rate of concentrated biogas slurry against Verticillium dahliae was assessed using the mycelium growth rate method, concave slide method and hanging drop method. The effect on controlling cotton Verticillium wilt was detected by foliage spray and irrigation in pot experiments. Induced disease resistance of concentrated biogas slurry in cotton was analyzed by reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, the expression levels of defense genes in G. hirsutum leaves were detected by reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). [Result] The results showed that colony growth, conidial yield and microsclerotia germination of the pathogen were significantly inhibited by the concentrated biogas slurry. The volatile organic compounds of the concentrated biogas slurry may have caused the mycelium hyphae to become malformed and broken. In the greenhouse, a 0.50% (volume fraction) dilution of concentrated biogas slurry via two foliage spray treatments significantly reduced the disease index, with the control efficacy of 64.89%. 1.25% concentrated biogas slurry applied via two pouring root treatments significantly reduced the disease index, with a control efficacy of 78.01%. In the severely diseased nursery, 120 L·hm-2 was the optimal dosage of concentrated biogas slurry for controlling Verticillium wilt by drip irrigation. Concentrated biogas slurry was also shown to enhance disease resistance response of cotton plants, including ROS and some defense genes that encodes peroxidase, chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, cadinene synthase and polyphenol oxidase. All these genes may play important roles in inhibiting pathogen growth and dispersion within cotton plants. [Conclusion] Concentrated biogas slurry can effectively control Verticillium wilt in cotton; the action mechanisms against the pathogen may include direct suppression and enhanced resistance of host plants.

Key words: cotton; Verticillium wilt; concentrated biogas slurry; control effect; defense genes

中图分类号: 
  • S435.621