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Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of Dof Gene Family in Upland Cotton
Ju Longzhen, Zhao Ting, Fang Lei, Hu Yan, Zhang Tianzhen
Cotton Science    2020, 32 (4): 279-291.   DOI: 10.11963/1002-7807.jlzhy.20200630
Abstract500)      PDF(pc) (14548KB)(200)       Save
[Objective] The DNA binding with one finger proteins (Dof) are plant-specific transcription factors that play a very important role in plant growth, development and in response to abiotic stress. The aim of this study was to provide a reference for further functional study of the Dof genes associated with plant growth and development by genome-wide analysis of Dof transcription factor family in Gossypium hirsutum. [Method] Using the recently released upland cotton genomic data, the Dof genes in G. hirsutum were identified by bioinformatic method. The physico-chemical properties, sequence characteristics, gene duplication, phylogeny and expression pattern of Dof genes were analyzed. [Result] A total of 118 Dof genes were identified in G. hirsutum. Based on phylogenetic analysis, these Dof genes were divided into nine subfamilies, and the genes within the same subfamily had similar exon-intron organization and motif distribution. Gene duplication analysis revealed that whole genome duplication was the main contributor to the expansion of Dof genes in G. hirsutum. Cis-acting element analysis showed the promoters of Dof genes had cis-acting regulatory elements involved in stresses responses to different plant hormones. The results of RNA-seq data analysis revealed that Dof genes expression in G. hirsutum was classified into three types which had different expression pattern in different tissues, developmental stages and stresses, indicating gene functional differentiation. [Conclusion] The genome-wide identification and analysis of Dof gene family in G. hirsutum is helpful to understand the evolution and function, and provides a support for future studies.
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Application of Smart Agriculture in Cotton Production Management
Chen Huanxuan, Han Yingchun, Feng Lu, Yang Beifang, Lei Yaping, Wang Zhanbiao, Li Yabing
Cotton Science    2020, 32 (3): 269-278.   DOI: 10.11963/1002-7807.chxlyb.20200504
Abstract498)      PDF(pc) (871KB)(68)       Save
[Objective]Many facets of society continuously advance at a rapid pace, and agriculture plays a vital role as a pillar industry of the national economy. Cotton is an essential economic crop that is primarily cultivated in a traditional way. As the demands of society change, this conventional farming practice is no longer the most practical. In the future, smart agriculture will guide farming methods for cotton. In this paper, we provide a brief introduction to smart agriculture and summarize its various applications in cotton production and management. We listed and analyzed the practical use of smart agriculture in all aspects of cotton production and management. We further analyzed the advantages and disadvantages and provided the summary and prospect of smart agriculture as applied to cotton production management. 
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Genetic Dissection of Allelic Loci Associated with Economic Traits of Upland Cottons in Xinjiang
Lei Jiejie, Shao Panxia, Guo Chunping, Zhang Dawei, Tang Binghui, Nurimanguli Aini, Peng Yajuan, Cui Tianyu, Zhang Aoshen, Lin Hairong, Lin Zhongxu, You Chunyuan, Nie Xinhui
Cotton Science    2020, 32 (3): 185-198.   DOI: 10.11963/1002-7807.ljjnxh.20200509
Abstract494)      PDF(pc) (3308KB)(87)       Save
[Objective] We completed anassociation analysis of economic traits for upland cotton using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We then explored the allelic variation sites to analyze the genetic basis of economically important traits, studied the genetic mechanism of Xinjiang upland cotton, and aimed to accelerate efficient breeding of upland cotton. [Method] We carried out polymorphic scanning on 156 upland cotton varieties in Xinjiang by screening 73 pairs of SSR markers encompassing the whole cotton genome. We constructed boxplot maps using R statistical computing software and graphics language and used TASSEL software to correlate yield or fiber quality traits with significant allelic variation loci. [Results] We obtained 10 allelic variation loci related to yield traits using the correlation analysis of Xinjiang upland cotton varieties from six different environments. The interpretation rate of phenotypic variation ranged from 6.69% to 9.88% with an average of 8.43%. Twenty-three allelic variation loci associated with fiber quality traits and phenotypic variation interpretation rates ranged from 3.73% to 13.22% with an average of 7.52%. The 22 detected quantitative trait loci were reported in previous studies and 10 showed the same associated traits as previously reported. [Conclusion] The population genetic structure of Xinjiang upland cotton varieties is simple, the linkage disequilibrium level is low, and the phenotypic traits show a stable trend under six environments. Using association analysis, we discovered unique allelic variation genes related to yield and fiber quality and diverse allele loci.
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Research in Tissue Culture of Diploid Cotton Species
Sun Yue, Hua Jinping
Cotton Science    2020, 32 (2): 158-169.   DOI: 10.11963/1002-7807.syhjp.20200305
Abstract482)      PDF(pc) (4482KB)(96)       Save
 Diploid cotton species provide parental (ancestral) species for tetraploid cultivars and are the key germplasm resources for cotton genetic improvement. In addition, diploid cotton species supply excellent materials for  mutant library construction and functional genomics. Diploid cotton species originated from Asia- Africa, America, Oceania regions with rich genetic diversity. The tissue culture research mainly involves regeneration of plant organs and cell culture, protoplast culture, somatic culture and fusion. The regenerated plants have been obtained in Gossypium klotzschianum, G. gossypioides, G. arboreum, G. davidsonii, G. raimondii, G. stocksii, G. nelsonii, G. bickii, etc. Among them, regenerated plants in shoot tip culture were only obtained in G. arboreum, G. bickii. Regenerated plantlets in protoplast culture were obtained in G. klotzschianum, G. davidsonii. Interspecific hybrids between G. hirsutum and diploid cotton of G. klotzschianum, G. stocksii and G. bickii were obtained, respectively. The tissue culture systems of diploid cotton were different from each other, and the strategy is similar to that in woody plants. This paper summarized the progresses in related researches and discussed the future research.
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Genetic Diversity and Association Analysis of Fiber Quality Traits with SSR Markers in Germplasm Resources of Early Maturity Upland Cotton in Xinjiang
Xu Suixi, Wang Xuwen, Tian Qin, Kong Xianhui, Liu Li, Si Aijun, Wang Juan, Yu Yu
Cotton Science    2020, 32 (3): 233-246.   DOI: 10.11963/1002-7807.xsxyy.20200507
Abstract435)      PDF(pc) (1327KB)(68)       Save
[Objective] We explored the genetic diversity of early maturity upland cotton germplasm resources in Xinjiang, China. We discovered specific germplasm resources and elite allelic variation related to fiber quality. [Method] We used 219 early maturity upland cotton accessions in our experiments and investigated 15 agronomic traits in three environments. We used a total of 128 pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers to scan for polymorphism. We then used NTsys-pc2.1 software to analyze genetic diversity, and Structure2.3.1 and Tassle5.0 software to perform association analysis of fiber quality traits based on phenotypic effect values to identify elite allele variation and conventional materials. [Result] A total of 244 loci were amplified by 128 marker pairs in 219 samples with an average of 1.91 loci per marker. The polymorphic information content ranged from 0.13 to 0.86 with an average of 0.63. The distribution range of the genetic similarity coefficient between materials in this population was 0.42-0.99 with an average of 0.61. The genetic similarity coefficient was between 0.5 and 0.7 and accounted for 90.19%. Through association analysis, we detected 11 markers that were significantly (P<0.01) associated with fiber quality traits, and discovered seven typical materials with specific allele. [Conclusion] In total, 219 Xinjiang early-maturing upland cotton germplasm resources have low genetic diversity. Based on SSR association analysis, we discovered some specific allele variations and conventional materials related to fiber quality traits.
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Effect of Thidiazuron and Ethylene Use and Ratio on Defoliation Ripening in Different Cotton Area
Song Xinghu, Xu Dongyong, Sun Lu, Zhao Wenchao, Cao Longlong, Zhang Xiang, Tang Jiyuan, Han Huanyong, Wang Hongzhe, Chen Hongzhang, Wang Lin, Zhao Bingmei, Du Mingwei, Tian Xiaoli, Li Zhaohu
Cotton Science    2020, 32 (3): 247-257.   DOI: 10.11963/1002-7807.sxhlzh.20200512
Abstract419)      PDF(pc) (3727KB)(50)       Save
[Objective] Defoliation and ripening (D&R) is a prerequisite for the mechanical harvesting of cotton. The combination of applying thidiazuron (TDZ) and ethylene (ETH) to plants is the primary method for cotton D&R in China. The ecological conditions and planting patterns for cotton are quite variable across planting zones, so it is necessary to study the appropriate doses and ratio of TDZ and ETH for specific cotton planting areas. [Method] We conducted field experiments in 2018 at nine sites in Hejian and Handan, Hebei Province; Dezhou and Wudi in the Yellow River Valley, Shandong Province; Dafeng in the Yangtze River Valley, Jiangsu Province; and Shihezi Ⅰ, Shihezi Ⅱ, Luntai, and Shaya, Xinjiang. We used a TDZ (50% wettable powder) and ETH (40% aqueous solution) mixture at three concentrations, 450 g + 1 725 mL (T1), 600 g + 3 000 mL (T2), and 600 g + 4 500 mL (T3) per hectare, respectively, and the active ingredient ratios of TDZ and ETH were 1:3, 1:4, and 1:6, using water as the control. [Result] In Dafeng, the defoliation rate of the control was more than 80% at 16 days after spraying (DAS) and there was no significance observed in any of the treatments. The defoliation rate was significantly higher than the control at the rest of the sites at 14 DAS, and lower natural defoliation rates were associated with higher scopes. The defoliation rates were not consistent across the treatments, and in most cases, they were not significant. Some treatments reached 90% defoliation at 14-16 DAS. The boll opening rate (BOR) before spraying did not produce a significant increase compared with the control at 14-16 DAS. Lower BOR before spraying (such as at Shihezi I) was associated with a more substantial increase. Without spraying, a smaller increase was observed. There was no significant difference between the treatments and control after spraying at most of the experiment sites. Using the TDZ and ETH mixture did not have a significant effect on yield and yield quality in most experiment sites. [Conclusion] The defoliation rate increased significantly after 14 DAS, but there was little effect on the BOR, cotton yield, and fiber quality. Because of the stability of the D&R impact and cost, we recommend T2 for cotton D&R in each area of China.
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Effects of Ethylene on Cotton Adaption to Waterlogging Stress and the Underlying Mechanism
Liu Guangya, Zhang Yanjun, Sun Xuezhen, Dong Hezhong
Cotton Science    2020, 32 (3): 208-218.   DOI: 10.11963/1002-7807.lgydhz.20200426
Abstract418)      PDF(pc) (1288KB)(95)       Save
[Objective] Waterlogging adversely affects cotton growth and development, and continuous waterlogging may further result in considerable yield loss or crop failure. Enhancing the ability of cotton to adapt to waterlogging stress to preserve yield and quality is therefore critical. Ethylene is an important signal molecule, which plays a vital role in the process of plant stress resistance. However, the mechanism of ethylene in mitigating cotton waterlogging damage is still unclear. [Method] In this study, we setup an experiment with a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) variety K638 in an electric rain shelter at the experimental station of the Shandong Cotton Research Center at Linqing, Shandong. We treated the cotton plants by waterlogging for 10 d during the flowering stage and used a non-waterlogged treatment as the control. During the waterlogging stress treatment, cotton plants were treated with an ethylene signal transduction inhibitor (1-MCP) or ethylene synthesis precursor (ACC) to detect the effects of ethylene content on cotton waterlogging injury and its physiological mechanism. [Result] The results revealed that a foliar spray of 1-MCP significantly inhibited ethylene synthesis in the stressed cotton plants, the content of ethylene and malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased by 5.3% and 39.2%, and the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) decreased by 37.8%, 20.5%, and 8.2%, respectively. The photosynthetic rate, dry weight of the whole plant, and seed cotton yield increased by 13.5%, 3.3%, and 4.6%, respectively. The effect of ACC on the plants was the opposite because spraying ACC promoted ethylene accumulation in the waterlogged cotton. The ethylene and MDA content increased by 8.0% and 19.5%, respectively. The activities of ADH, PDC, and LDH increased by 17.5%, 11.2%, and 8.0%, respectively, while the photosynthetic rate, dry weight of the whole plant, and seed cotton yield decreased by 6.0%, 7.7%, and 8.0%, respectively. [Conclusion] In summary, reducing ethylene content in waterlogged cotton plants can significantly alleviate hypoxia damage caused by waterlogging stress and subsequently promote cotton growth and development by restoring physiological metabolism.
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Effects of Leaf Position of Transgenic Cotton on the Population Growth of Spodoptera exigua in the Early Growth Stage
Yang Yang, Xie Xiuqing, Su Honghua, Yang Yizhong
Cotton Science    2020, 32 (3): 199-207.   DOI: 10.11963/1002-7807.yyyyz.20200512
Abstract401)      PDF(pc) (1006KB)(27)       Save
[Objective] Cotton has recently become one of the main hosts of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), a moth species that damages the leaves of plants. With the widespread application and popularization of transgenic insect-resistant cotton, it is essential to understand the significance of leaf position on the population growth of S. exigua to effectively manage this pest. Leaf position was determined by the preference of this pest for the upper and middle leaves of cotton. [Method] To study the effects of different leaf positions on S. exigua population growth, we used three different kinds of transgenic cotton (transgenic cry1A cotton GK12, transgenic cry1Ac cotton Nu COTN 33B, and transgenic cry1A+CpTI cotton SGK321). We tested these three transgenic cotton varieties alongside their corresponding parental non-Bt transgenic cotton varieties (Simian 3, DP5415, and Shiyuan 321) as controls, respectively. We describe our results in the form of a population life table. [Result] (1) GK12 and SGK321 had an inhibitory effect on S. exigua, which exhibited some differences with the change of feeding position. The population trend index was substantially larger than 1. (2) Although there was an influence on the growth and reproduction of S. exigua after feeding on different leaf positions of the same transgenic cotton, the results show no apparent trend of change among leaf positions. (3) The population index of S. exigua that fed on Nu COTN 33B and SGK321 showed a lower tendency than that on conventional cotton varieties, but there was no significant difference between the population index for the S. exigua that fed on GK12 and Simian 3. [Conclusion] The population growth of the S. exigua that fed at different leaf positions on the three varieties of transgenic cotton increased throughout the experiment. This continuous population growth indicates that the transgenic cotton crops require additional management actions to control of the pest species, S. exigua
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Temporal and Spatial Variation Characteristics of Soil Temperature in Cotton Fields under Different Cropping Systems
Xing Fangfang, Han Yingchun, Lei Yaping, Feng Lu, Wang Guoping, Yang Beifang, Wang Zhanbiao, Li Xiaofei, Xiong Shiwu, Fan Zhengyi, Du Wenli, Xin Minghua, Li Yabing
Cotton Science    2020, 32 (3): 219-232.   DOI: 10.11963/1002-7807.xfflyb.20200429
Abstract396)      PDF(pc) (5036KB)(80)       Save
[Objective] Soil temperature affects the biochemical processes of crops; therefore, elucidating its spatial and temporal distribution characteristics in different cropping systems is an essential part of understanding how to boost cotton yield potential. [Method] In 2016 and 2017, continuous, real-time soil temperature monitoring was conducted at a depth of 10-110 cm in three cropping systems, including monoculture cotton (MC), wheat/intercropped cotton (WIC), and wheat/direct-seeded cotton (WDC). We investigated the growth process and various agronomic traits. [Result] Different cotton soil temperatures were found between MC and doubled in late May, indicating about 1-3 ℃ higher in the former during the symbiotic period. In early July, the cotton soil temperature of the double-cropping systems at 10-40 cm was higher than that of the MC, but showed the opposite at 40-110 cm. In early August, the differences in soil temperature reduced among the three cropping systems, while the soil temperature of the MC was still slightly lower than that of the double-cropping systems. After mid-September, the soil temperature of the double-cropping systems was lower than that of the MC. The soil temperature mainly influenced the duration of cotton seedling to squaring, and flowering to the boll-opening period. At the same time, there was a subtle effect on the squaring to flowering and boll period. In general, higher average soil temperatures were associated with shorter growth period durations. During the same period, the lowest daily soil temperature of the double-cropping systems occurred about one hour earlier than in the MC; however, the highest daily temperature appeared at the same time. There was a linear relationship between accumulated soil temperature and biomass at different layers across cropping systems. [Conclusion] Controlling the timing and quantity of irrigation water can assist agronomic practices by alleviating the effect of soil temperature on cotton growth. Increased accumulative soil temperature is beneficial to cotton emergence and boll opening in double-cropping systems. This study provides a theoretical basis for rational allocation and management of different cropping systems.
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Effects of Exogenous Proline on the Growth, Physiological Characteristics, and Proline Metabolism of Cotton Seedlings under Boron Deficiency Stress
Zeng Yu, Yan Lei, Liu Yalin, Zeng Zijun, Jiang Cuncang
Cotton Science    2020, 32 (3): 258-268.   DOI: 10.11963/1002-7807.zyjcc.20200509
Abstract384)      PDF(pc) (2913KB)(22)       Save
[Objective] This study investigates the effects of exogenous proline on the growth, physiological responses, and proline metabolism of cotton (Ekang No.8) seedlings treated with varying boron (B) concentrations. [Method] We conducted a randomized experiment with six treatments using the hydroponic method in a greenhouse at Huazhong Agricultural University. We applied three different concentrations of boron, including 0.02 μmol·L-1 (low-concentration B), 2.5 μmol·L-1 (medium-concentration B), and 100 μmol·L-1 (sufficient-concentration B). The first two are boron-deficient treatments. We also applied an exogenous proline treatment at 20 μmol·L-1(0  μmol·L-1 as control). When any significant difference among the treatments were observed, the related indicator was measured. [Result] The results showed that exogenous proline inhibited the growth of cotton seedlings under sufficient-concentration B treatment while promoting the absorption of B by roots under low-concentration B treatment. The application of exogenous proline to the seedlings under low-concentration B treatment reduced the contents of proline and H2O2 in leaves but increased the accumulation of MDA and H2O2 in roots. The activities of SOD and antioxidant enzymes (APX) in the roots and leaves were dramatically enhanced. Conversely, POD activity reduced significantly and there was no significant change in CAT activity relative to low-concentration B treatment. More importantly, we found that the application of exogenous proline under B deficiency increased the activities of P5CS, P5CR, OAT (synthetase), and PRODH (degrading enzyme) in proline metabolic pathways. [Conclusion] Applying exogenous proline under sufficient-B concentration inhibits growth. The application of proline to seedlings under low-B concentration promotes the absorption of B by roots, increases the activity of APX, and decreases the membrane lipid peroxidation in leaves. A B deficiency leads to proline accumulation in plants. The addition of proline under low-B concentration can reduce the proline content in leaves, which is caused by affecting the critical synthetase and catabolic enzyme activities in the proline metabolism pathway (Glu and Orn pathway). The main reason for this occurrence is the significant increase of proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) activity.
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Mining Elite Sea-Island Cotton Germplasm Based on Phenotyping and SSR Markers
Ma Qi, Ning Xinzhu, Li Jilian, Chen Hong, Yu Yu, Lin Hai
Cotton Science    2020, 32 (2): 91-101.   DOI: 10.11963/1002-7807.mqlh.20200303
Abstract277)      PDF(pc) (2052KB)(169)       Save
[Objective] An elite germplasm resource of sea-island cotton with outstanding traits was mined in order to accelerate the breeding process of new varieties. [Method] The core collections of sea-island cotton germplasm consisted of 178 accessions were used as experimental materials in this study. Analyses of variability and diversity were performed through detecting phenotypic data of six main breeding-targeted traits, including boll weight, boll number per plant, lint percentage, fiber length, fiber strength, and micronaire. The elite germplasm of sea-island cotton was selected according to 10% optimal sampling strategy based on the phenotypic value of each trait. The 120 pairs of polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers were used to analyze the polymorphism of 178 accessions of the core collections. Then, we conducted the population structure and clustering analysis based on the genotyping results. According to the results of cluster analysis, the primary elite germplasm was further selected, and the final elite germplasm of sea-island cotton was identified. [Result] The results showed that there was a high variability and abundant genetic diversity in the 6 studied traits. In 178 accessions of sea-island cotton, 262 alleles were detected by 120 pairs of SSR primers, with an average of 2.18 loci. The average polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.067 8-0.630 0, with an average of 0.296 0, showing moderate polymorphism. The cluster analysis showed that the core collection of sea-island cotton was divided into six groups. twenty-three elite germplasm resources of sea-island cotton were identified based on phenotypic value and cluster analysis of SSR markers. [Conclusion] The germplasm of sea-island cotton can be analyzed and evaluated based on the phenotyping and SSR markers, and then the elite germplasm of sea-island cotton can be identified. These results provided the material basis for the genetic breeding of sea-island cotton, as well as the important reference and basis for the mining and identification of crop elite germplasm.
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Effects of Planting Date on Sucrose Metabolism in the Leaf Subtending to Cotton Boll, Within-boll Yield Components and Fiber Quality
Chen Gong, Peng Jinjian, Luo Haihua, Gao Xin, Yuan Changkai, Yin Mengyao, Xiang Chunling, Wang Peipei, Tu Qinghua, Tang Feiyu
Cotton Science    2020, 32 (2): 102-112.   DOI: 10.11963/1002-7807.cgtfy.20200309
Abstract211)      PDF(pc) (1923KB)(120)       Save
[Objective] The present study aimed to investigate how sucrose metabolism in the leaf subtending to cotton boll, within-boll yield components and fiber quality respond to varying planting dates. [Method] Two upland cotton lines A705 and A201 differing in cotton boll traits were field tested in 2016-2017. Two different planting dates were designed with early planting on April 12, 2016, and April 15, 2017, and late planting on May 6, 2016, and May 28, 2017, respectively. Dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates (sucrose, hexose, starch) and key sucrose metabolism enzymes in the leaf subtending to cotton boll were examined including vacuolar acid invertase, cell wall acid invertase, sucrose phosphate synthase and sucrose synthase. The differences between two planting dates were compared for within- boll yield components, fiber quality and sucrose metabolism related characteristics. [Result] Late planting lengthened the period of cotton boll maturation relative to early planting. Boll weight, seed mass per boll, seed index and fiber length were increased, and lint percentage and micronaire were decreased. Late planting reduced the activities of cell wall acid invertase and sucrose synthase responsible for sucrose degradation, and in turn led to the increment of sucrose concentration in the subtending leaves which might enhance the carbon supply to the opposite bolls. [Conclusion] Lower temperature due to late planting could contribute to the more full development of cotton bolls. Late planting is an alternative consideration in improvement of fiber quality in cotton cultural practices.
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Research Advances on Cotton Harvest Aids in China
Zhou Tingting, Xiao Qinggang, Du Rui, Han Xiaoqiang, Zhang Guoqiang, Wang Guobin
Cotton Science    2020, 32 (2): 170-184.   DOI: 10.11963/1002-7807.ztthxq.20200303
Abstract185)      PDF(pc) (1675KB)(223)       Save
Chemical defoliation and ripening is the important premise of machine-harvested cotton, and also the key of agronomic measures technology of machine-harvested cotton. Appropriate and safe harvest aids will improve timing and facilitate harvest of cotton. However, there are only few types of the cotton harvest aids active ingredients, and with serious formulation homogeneity as well as the backward equipments and technologies of cotton harvest aids spraying lead to high impurity content of seed cotton and seriously affects the quality of cotton. In this paper, the research status of  harvest aids and its scientific application were reviewed, and the existing problems and solutions of cotton harvest aids were summarized. The prospect and research direction of reducing application efficiency of cotton harvest aids in the future were prospected.
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Genome-Wide Identification and Functional Analysis of the NF-YA Gene Family in Gossypium hirsutum L.
Pan Ao, Wang Jingjing, Sun Fulai, Zhang Jingxia, Gao Yang, Du Zhaohai, Jiao Mengjia, Zhang Jun, Wang Furong, Liu Zhi
Cotton Science    2020, 32 (4): 316-328.   DOI: 10.11963/1002-7807.palz.20200611
Abstract178)      PDF(pc) (7726KB)(74)       Save
[Objective] The NF-YA gene family was identified in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), and their expression characteristics were analyzed to discover the genes related to cotton flowering regulation. [Method] Using bioinformatic methods, the NF-YA genes were identified and their physical and chemical properties, gene structure, cis-element, collinearity, Ka/K swere investigated. The expression pattern was performed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The gene function was verified by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). [Result] A total of 29 GhNF-YA genes were identified from upland cotton genome, these genes were divided into five clades and distributed on 18 chromosomes. The expansion of the NF-YA genes in upland cotton was mainly driven by whole genome duplication and segmental duplication. A lot of light responding elements were identified in the promoter regions of GhNF-YA genes. According to the expression profiling, the GhNF-YA genes were highly expressed in stems and leaves. Meanwhile, analysis of qRT-PCR showed that 12 GhNF-YA genes had a relatively high expression in the leaf of both early-maturing cotton cultivar Lumianyan 19 and late-maturing cotton cultivar Lumianyan 37 from three- to six-leaf stage, and expression of the most genes was significantly different between the two cultivars. The function of GhNF-YA18 in Lumianyan 37 was verified by VIGS, and the results indicated that the bud emergence in silenced plants was 11 d earlier than that of unsilenced control plants. In addition, the expression of GhNF-YA18 was lower in silenced plants than unsilenced plants at albino and budding stages. [Conclusion] In this study, we identified and characterized the 29 GhNF-YA genes in upland cotton. The results will provide a foundation for future studies in molecular regulatory mechanisms of cotton early fiowering.
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Cloning and Expression Profiling of Cuticular Protein Genes of Spodoptera litura
Zhao Peng, Zhang Shuai, Zhao Chenchen, Hu Fangmei, Cui Jinjie, Li Shaoqin
Cotton Science    2020, 32 (4): 292-304.   DOI: 10.11963/1002-7807.zplsq.20200521
Abstract169)      PDF(pc) (5483KB)(42)       Save
[Objective] The expression pattern of fourteen cuticular protein (CP) genes (ICPG) in Spodoptera litura were analyzed in this study, which provided reference for further study on the function of cuticular proteins in the growth and development of S. litura. [Method] Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify the cDNAs of the genes encoding CPs of S. litura. Their nucleotide sequences and corresponding amino acid sequences were analyzed, and lepidopteran phylogenetic tree was constructed using MEGA5.2 software. The expression of CP genes was analyzed in the third to the sixth instar larvae and 2-day-old adult genital organs by the reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) technique. [Result] Fourteen cDNAs coding 14 CPs of S. litura were obtained. The sequence analysis showed 14 CPs harbor the conserved motif of 35-36 amino acids that is a typical feature of chitin-binding proteins and share high sequence homology with CPs of Helicoverpa armigera. RT-PCR results showed that these CP genes were expressed in the third to the sixth instar larvae and 2-day-old adults. In particular, their relative expression levels are higher in the cuticulars of older larvae and lower in the fat bodies of younger larvae. In addition, the relative expression of 14 CP genes was low in testes and ovaries. The highest relative expression of SlICPG-11 and SlICPG-14 in the pupal stage. [Conclusion] In this study, the cDNA of 14 S. litura CP genes were cloned. Their expression exhibited tissue and developmental stage specificity indicating their putative roles in S. litura development. It lays the foundation for target site selection for the control of S. litura.
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Cloning and Functional Analysis of Low Temperature Response Gene, GhZAT10, in  Upland Cotton at Seedling Stage
Yang Yongfei , Ge Changwei, Shen Qian, Zhang Siping, Liu Shaodong, Ma Huijuan, Chen Jing, Liu Ruihua, Li Shicong, Zhao Xinhua, Li Zhikun, Pang Chaoyou
Cotton Science    2020, 32 (4): 305-315.   DOI: 10.11963/1002-7807.yyfpcy.20200703
Abstract162)      PDF(pc) (6553KB)(67)       Save
[Objective] The aim of this study is to identify chilling tolerant genes which can provide a basis for breeding upland cotton cultivars with tolerance to chilling. [Method] The GhZAT10 (Zinc finger of Arabidopsis thaliana 10) gene was cloned, and its expression in roots, stems, and leaves was analyzed with cold treatment by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Then we analyzed the structural characteristics of GhZAT10, protein properties and constructed the phylogenetic tree by bioinformatics methods. Next, we constructed subcellular localization vector 35S::GhZAT10-GFP by Gateway technology. Finally, we studied the effect of GhZAT10 in chilling response by virus induced gene silencing of cotton. [Result] The Open reading frame(ORF) length of GhZAT10 gene is 813 bp (base pair), encoding 270 amino acid residues. The expression of GhZAT10 in roots was higher than that in stems and leaves, and up-regulated after chilling stress in these tissues. GhZAT10 does not possess signal peptides or transmembrane helices; its activity is closely related to the phosphorylation regulation. GhZAT10 has homology with the ZAT10 of Theobroma cacao, Arabidopsis thaliana and Citrus sinensis. GhZAT10 protein is located in the nucleus. The GhZAT10-silenced cotton plants were more sensitive to low temperature than wild type. [Conclusion] GhZAT10 belongs to C2H2 zinc finger protein, and plays a positive role to response the chilling stress in upland cotton.
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Biocontrol Effect of Bacillus velezensis Strain SZAD1 on Verticillium dahliae
Zhang Qiong, Zabihullah Sherzad, Tang Canming
Cotton Science    2020, 32 (4): 329-338.   DOI: 10.11963/1002-7807.zqtcm.20200609
Abstract159)      PDF(pc) (5811KB)(37)       Save
[Objective] Verticillium wilt is the main fungal disease of cotton, lacking high resistant varieties and safe and effective chemical fungicides. Biological control of Verticillium wilt is of great significance to cotton production. The purpose of this study was to analyze the antagonistic activity and biocontrol potential of endophytic bacteria in cotton against Verticillium dahliae. [Method] SZAD1 was identified by 16S rDNA and gyrB sequence analysis. The ability of SZAD1 to inhibit the mycelial growth of V.dahliae strain VD080 was tested by the agar plate test, and the control effect on Verticillium wilt was tested by the seed soaking and root filling method. The agar plate containing carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) or chitin was prepared to test whether the strain can secrete cellulase and chitinase, and the enzyme activity was determined by the dinitrosalicylic acid reagent method. [Result] SZAD1 belongs to Bacillus velezensis. SZAD1 can significantly inhibit the growth of VD080 mycelium. The control effect of SZAD1 on Verticillium wilt was 60.10% and 56.00% in the seed soaking and root filling  experiments respectively. SZAD1 strain can produce cellulase and chitinase with the maximum activity at 72 h after culture. The antibacterial effect of fermented supernatant was the strongest at 72 h after culture. The content of VD080 spores in liquid potato dextrose agar medium decreased by 30.20% and 96.53% compared with the control respectively after adding supernatant with concentrations of 25 mg·L-1 and 50 mg·L-1. [Conclusion] The supernatant of bacteria SZAD1 can reduce the colonization of VD080 in the stem of cotton plant by root filling and decreased the withering degree of cotton leaves. SZAD1 has the potential of controlling cotton Verticillium wilt as a biocontrol bacteria.
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Identification and Analysis of Fiber Quality and Yield Related Traits of Interspecific  (Gossypium hirsutum L. × G. barbadense L.) Hybrids
Li Tengyu, Xu Chao, Li Yaoming, Gou Chengfei, Hong Zhu, Ding Mingquan, Sun Chendong
Cotton Science    2020, 32 (4): 348-359.   DOI: 10.11963/1002-7807.ltyscd.20200612
Abstract158)      PDF(pc) (1238KB)(48)       Save
[Objective] The aim of this study is to study the hereditary of heterosis of fiber quality and yield-related traits in the upland-island interspecific hybrids, and breed new interspecific hybrid varieties with high yield and fine fiber quality. [Method] In this study, 12 upland cotton materials and 5 sea-island cotton materials were selected to determine the fiber quality and yield traits of their parents and F1 in Lin’an, Zhejiang and Sanya, Hainan. [Result] It was found that fiber length and fiber strength of F1 (Gossypium hirsutum × G. barbadense) generally had significant mid-parent heterosis (MPH), some hybrid combinations showed strong over-parent heterosis (OPH), fiber length had a small coefficient of variation between the two places and could be stably inherited. And in terms of yield, seed cotton weight, lint weight, and lint percentage of some upland-island hybrids had MPH, but they were still significantly lower than those of upland cotton parents. [Conclusion] Two long-staple cotton hybrid combinations T035 and T044 with 5A grade high-quality were obtained, and an excellent material of G. barbadense Ta10-280 was screened. This study provides valuable data for the genetic law of fiber quality heterosis of upland-island hybrid cotton.
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A Monitoring Model of Nitrogen Nutrition of Drip Irrigation Cotton Based on Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parameters
Li Dongmei, Lü Xin, Luo Honghai, Qi Limin, Ding Yiren, Ma Jinxin, Ha Faduman, Ma Lulu, Zhang Ze
Cotton Science    2020, 32 (1): 63-76.   DOI: 10.11963/1002-7807.ldmzz.20191231
Abstract153)      PDF(pc) (2924KB)(82)       Save
[Objective] A monitoring model of nitrogen nutrition of cotton leaves based on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters was established for non-destructive monitoring of high efficiency nitrogen application and plant growth of cotton. [Method] A field study was conducted by using Xinluzao 58 as experimental material with four input levels of nitrogen, which were applied under the condition of mulched drip irrigation. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and nitrogen content of leaves in different positions of main stem were measured during the yield formation period of cotton, and the relationship between nitrogen content and fluorescence parameters of cotton leaves was analyzed. [Results](1) After 70 days of cotton emergence, the potential photochemical activity(Fv/F0) of photosystem II(PSⅡ), the potential maximum photochemical efficiency of  PSII (Fv/Fm), the actual photochemical efficiency of PSII (ΦPSII) and the maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv'/Fm') of the top 2 to top 5 leaves showed a gradual downward trend with the growth of cotton. (2) The nitrogen content and fluorescence parameters (Fv/F0, Fv/Fm, ΦPSII and Fv'/Fm') of top 2 to top 5 leaves showed an upward trend with the increase of nitrogen application rate, the N2 (240 kg·hm-2) treatment had the highest values of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. (3) The nitrogen content in leaves showed significant and positive correlation with Fv, Fv/F0, Fv/Fm and ΦPSII, and a good exponential function relationship with fluorescence parameters ΦPSII and Fv'/Fm', and a good linear function relationship with fluorescence parameters Fv, Fv/Fm and Fv/F0. The model between Fv and nitrogen content of top5 leaf(y=0.0022x+1.6243) had the best simulation effect, showing an extremely significant correlation, with the determination coefficient reaching 0.928 and the correlation coefficient reaching 0.963. [Conclusion] Proper applying of nitrogen (240 kg·hm-2) could increase the activity of PSII and the proportion of the open part of PSII reaction center and improve the photosynthetic capacity of cotton leaves. Nitrogen content in top 5 leaf was significantly correlated with chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv, which was therefore can be used to monitor nitrogen content in cotton leaves and further monitor nitrogen nutritional status of cotton plants.
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Banding Superphosphate and Ammonium Sulfate as Starter Fertilizer Improve Phosphate Fertilizer Efficiency and Cotton Yield
Zhang Shaomin, Baidengsha Maimaitiaili, Liu Shenglin, Feng Gu
Cotton Science    2020, 32 (2): 121-132.   DOI: 10.11963/1002-7807.zsmfg.20200303
Abstract146)      PDF(pc) (2664KB)(72)       Save
[Objective] Cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.) production was largely affected by soil salinity via inhibiting root growth and its ability of nutrient acquisition, especially phosphorus from soil in Xinjiang. In order to explore the way to improve root growth, nutrient efficiency and cotton yield in saline soil by altering application method of phosphate fertilizer(P) and nitrogen form. [Method] A 3-year experiment was conducted in a drip-irrigated cotton field in Xinjiang, to test the effects of P as broadcast fertilizer, P plus ammonium sulfate as starter fertilizer and P as starter fertilizer combining with application of ammonium at flowering and boll stage. [Result] At seedling stage, cotton shoot biomass and nutrient uptake were enhanced by increasing root length density (RLD) and root surface area (RSA) by 114.3% and 93.7% in 10-20 cm layer and decreasing soil pH in rhizospere by 0.41 units with application of P plus ammonium sulfate (AP34.5) as starter fertilizer compared with P plus ammonium sulfate broadcast (PB34.5) or P plus urea as starter fertilizer (UP34.5). Furthermore, fertigation with ammonium sulfate at flowering and boll stage further decreased rhizosphere pH by 0.64 units, and increased RLD, RSA in 10-20 cm layer. Thereby cotton yield was increased by 11.9% on average for 3 years, and nitrogen fertilizer partial productivity and P use efficiency were increased by 28.5% and 9.2 units compared with PB34.5, respectively. While application with ammonium sulfate plus high P rate (P2O5 69.0 kg·hm-2) as starter fertilizer had no positive effect on the root growth and AM fungi, but improved nutrient use efficiency and cotton yield. [Conclusion] We conclude that application of ammonium sulfate plus superphosphate as seeding fertilizer combining with applying ammonium sulfate at flowering and boll stage can improve phosphate fertilizer efficiency and yield in saline soil.
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