Ionic Homeostasis and Expression of Na+ Related Genes of Cotton under Different Salt and Alkali Stresses
- Li Shuangnan, Guo Huijuan, Hou Zhen’an
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[Objective] Maintaining intracellular ion homeostasis is one of the important salt-tolerant mechanisms of crops. This study aims to analyze differences in response characteristics of cotton ionome and salt-tolerant gene expression under different saline-alkali stresses, which provides a basis for understanding the mechanism of salt tolerance and improving salt tolerance of cotton. [Method] Using Lumianyan 24 as the experimental material, three kinds of salt and alkali stress types (salt stress, alkali stress, and mixed salt-alkali stress) and two concentration gradients (low and high concentrations) were set under pot cultivation conditions. Meanwhile, non-saline-alkali stress treatment was set as control. The dry matter weight of cotton plants and root morphological parameters including root length, root surface area, and root volume were measured in this study. The concentrations of 13 elements such as P, Na, K, Ca and Mg in different organs of cotton plants were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The relative expressions of salt tolerance related genes GhDFR1, GhSOS1, GhNHX1 and GhAKT1 were determined by the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method. [Result] 1) Salt and alkali stresses significantly inhibited cotton growth. The growth inhibition rate of cotton under mixed salt-alkali stress treatments (48.7%–57.9%) was significantly higher than that under salt stress (27.6%–49.9%) and alkali stress (21.2%–35.5%) treatments. Under salt stress and mixed salt-alkali stress treatments, both shoot and root growth of cotton were significantly inhibited, dry matter weight, root length, root surface area and root volume were significantly reduced, while root growth was less inhibited under alkali stress treatments. 2) Under three types of saline-alkali stresses, Na content and Mo content in different organs of cotton plant increased significantly, but N content in leaves and roots decreased. 3) Under salt stress treatments, the uptake of Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn and Zn in cotton was inhibited, and the ion balance was maintained by promoting the transport of these ions and P, K. 4) In addition to Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn and Zn, P uptake was also inhibited under alkali stress treatments, but K uptake and P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn and Zn transport were promoted. 5) Under mixed salt-alkali stress treatments, especially under high salinity and pH conditions, most of nutrients uptake was inhibited, and the transport capacity of Ca, Mg, Zn, Mn and Fe was reduced. 6) The relative expression of GhSOS1 and GhAKT1 genes increased significantly under salt stress treatments, but increased first and then decreased under alkali stress and mixed salt-alkali stress treatments. The relative expression levels of GhSOS1 and GhAKT1 genes under three types of saline-alkali stresses were alkali＞salt＞mixed saline-alkali stress. With the increase of soil salinity and pH value, the relative expression of GhNHX1 gene increased first and then decreased. The expression levels of GhNHX1 gene were salt＞alkali＞mixed salt-alkali stress. [Conclusion] Due to high salinity and pH value, mixed salt-alkali stress significantly inhibits cotton growth and ions uptake, which restricts the transport of P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Mn and Fe. The decrease of K and Na regulation ability leads to ions imbalance.