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15 May 2018, Volume 30 Issue 3

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The Difference and Mechanism in Tolerance to Low-Potassium among Cotton Seedlings Over-Expressed Arabidopsis AtCIPK 23, AtAKT 1 and AtCBL 1 Genes
Zhang Bin, Liu Ji, Zhang Chaojun, Kong Depei, Wang Peng, Yang Zhao’en, Li Fuguang, Zhang Xueyan
Cotton Science. 2018, 30 (3): 205-214.   DOI: 10.11963/1002-7807.zbzxy.20180418
Abstract ( 39 PDF (2568KB) ( 0 )
[Objective] To provide theoretical basis for potassium efficient cotton breeding, this work aimed to evaluate the influence of low potassium on transgenic cotton seedlings over-expressing Arabidopsis thaliana’s AtCIPK 23, AtAKT 1 and AtCBL 1 genes, respectively. [Method] Hydroponics was used to explore the growth vigor, dry weight, potassium concentration and accumulation of transgenic cotton and CCRI 24 seedlings under low and optimum potassium conditions. Furthermore, the root morphology, potassium utilization index, potassium transport ability and the severity to damage were comprehensively analyzed to uncover the possible physiological mechanisms. [Result] Under the optimum conditions of potassium, the transgenic plants and control grew well and showed no significant difference. However, with low potassium stress, the dry weight of plants over-expressing AtAKT 1 gene was 1.66 times of CCRI 24. Its total root length, root surface area and volume were about 3 times than those of CCRI 24. The AtAKT 1 plants also displayed obvious growth advantage, higher potassium utilization index and transport ability, and the severity to damage was lower. Plants over-expressing AtCIPK 23 and AtCBL 1 genes, however, were almost the same as the CCRI 24. [Conclusion] This study revealed that the ability of cotton’s resistance to low potassium was significantly improved by over-expression of AtAKT 1 gene, an exogenous potassium ion channel protein gene from Arabidopsis thaliana.
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Genome-Wide Identification and Functional Prediction of Phytochelatin Synthase Gene in Upland Cotton
Mei Lei, Li Ling, Xiao Qinzhi, Chen Jinhong, Zhu Shuijin
Cotton Science. 2018, 30 (3): 215-223.   DOI: 10.11963/1002-7807.mlzsj.20180510
Abstract ( 31 PDF (3999KB) ( 0 )
[Objective] Heavy metal stress rise advertise effects on growth and development in plant, from which phytochelatin synthase (PCS) plays key roles to protect plant cells. This article will present studies on the gene amount, structure, distribution and features. [Method] PCS gene family in cotton are analyzed based on completely global genome sequence cotton species including Gossypium hirsutum ((AD)1),  G. raimondii (D5) and G. arboreum (A2), for further understanding of those genes and protein family features. In this study, we conducted the analysis involving in identification on PCS family members, special protein domain comparison, polygenetic analysis, gene structure prediction and Cysteine survey. [Result] 2, 2 and 4 PCS genes were identified out in G. raimondii (D5), G. arboreum (A2) and G. hirsutum ((AD)1), respectively. All these 8 PCS genes had phytochelatin and phytochelatin_C domains and strictly conserved amino acid residues related to catalytic activity. Cotton PCS protein family members could be divided into 2 sub-group, and these members belongs to sub-group I or sub-group II are close to dicotyledon or nematode, respectively. What’s more, there are some difference in both gene structure and Cys distribution between those 2 sub-groups. Less integrity of exons in PCS genes in G. raimondii, comparing to G. hirsutum and G. arboreum. [Conclusion] Comparing to sub-group II, the PCS genes from sub-group I should be higher catalytic activity. G. hirsutum and its donor G. arboreum probably are more heavy metal tolerant than G. raimondii. Based on the results, this research will provide some insights on further functional study.
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The Endogenous Hormone Differences of Different Fruiting Branch Internode Length Traits and the Influence of Spraying Exogenous Hormone in Upland Cotton
Li Zhanshuai, Wei Hengling, Pang Chaoyou, Wang Hantao, Ma Qifeng, Su Junji, Chen Quanjia, Qu Yanying, Fan Shuli, Yu Shuxun
Cotton Science. 2018, 30 (3): 224-230.   DOI: 10.11963/1002-7807.lzsysx.20180430
Abstract ( 38 PDF (4080KB) ( 0 )
[Objective] It is of great significance for shaping plant architecture, strengthening the research on cotton fruiting branch internode length. [Method] In this research, two upland cotton materials Zhong2549(long branch internode) and Zhong5081(short branch internode) were used for the study of the endogenous hormone differences by measuring endogenous hormone of the fruiting branch internode of Zhong2549 and Zhong5081; and for the study of the influence to the internode length by spraying exogenous hormone to Zhong2549 and Zhong5081. The paraffin section technique was used to detect the cell morphology of the fruiting branch internode of Zhong2549 and Zhong5081. [Result] that the content of endogenous hormone IAA, GA3 and ABA in Zhong2549 were apparently higher than its in Zhong5081. Spraying exogenous hormone IAA, GA3 and ABA promoted the fruiting branch internode elongation. The section result showed that the cell size of Zhong549 was bigger than Zhong5081, and the cell density of Zhong2548 was less than Zhong5081. These indicated that the endogenous hormones which affect the fruiting branch internode length and the differences of different length fruiting branch internode in cellular level. [Conclusion] This study can provide some foundation and reference for the later research.
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Integrated Evaluation and the Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Semi-Wild Cotton under Complex Salt-Alkali Stress
Xu Yanchao, Wei Yangyang, Li Zhenqing, Cai Xiaoyan, Wang Yuhong, Wang Xingxing, Zhang Zhenmei, Wang Kunbo, Liu Fang, Zhou Zhongli
Cotton Science. 2018, 30 (3): 231-241.   DOI: 10.11963/1002-7807.xyczzl.20180430
Abstract ( 31 PDF (1567KB) ( 0 )
[Objective] The genetic diversity of semi-wild cotton was abundant, so more new elite resistant genes could be found and applied to improve the resistance of cotton. The aim of this study was to primarily study on the regulation of response to salt-alkali stress, explore the method of integrated evaluation and characterize the resistance of semi-wild cotton. [Method] Four semi-wild and two cultivated Gossypium hirsutum accessions were evaluated for phonotypical, physiological and biochemical traits under alkali-salt versus normal conditions in hydroponic solutions. The alkali-salt tolerance was determined based on principal component analysis, cluster analysis, correlation analysis, grey rational analysis and analysis of variance. [Result] On the basis of the overall results, the alkali-salt stress tolerance of the six accessions was ranked as: Marie-galante85 > Latifolium32 > CRI16 > CRI12 > Latifolium40 > Latifolium130. Roots were found to be the most important responsive systems to complex alkali-salt stress. At seedling growth stage, the active scavenging system played a crucial role in response to alkali-salt stress. In addition, the salt tolerant and salt sensitive accessions showed different response tends towards leaf peroxidase, root ascorbate peroxidase and root catalase within 48 h, suggesting the accessions have different levels of response to salt stress. [Conclusion] Our study identified the most alkali-salt tolerant accessions and provided basic concept of complex alkali-salt tolerance mechanism within cotton accessions. And, our study provided a simple and rapid, highly accurate and precise method for evaluating salt resistance of cotton, and proved that the balance of ROS system play an important role in response to salt-alkali stress. Hence, mining of salt tolerant genes from these accessions may facilitate the development of novel salt tolerant variety.
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Responses of Canopy Photosynthesis, Spectral Indices and Solar-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Cotton under Drought Stress
Li Dongwang, Zhang Yongjiang, Liu Liantao, Sun Hongchun, Liu Yuchun, Bai Zhiying, Li Cundong
Cotton Science. 2018, 30 (3): 242-251.   DOI: 10.11963/issn.1002-7807.ldwzyj.20180503
Abstract ( 26 PDF (2126KB) ( 0 )
[Objective] Study canopy photosynthesis, spectral indices and solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence in cotton under drought stress. [Method] Using transgenic cotton cultivar Nongda 601 as material, a two-year experiment was conducted with four irrigation regimes (CK, light drought, moderate drought and severe drought) under a field mobile shed to measure the following indices and parameters at canopy level: canopy photosynthetic rate (CAP), spectral indices (normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and water index (WI)) and solar-induced fluorescence at 761 nm (F761), as well as plant leaf water content (LWC) and leaf area index (LAI). [Result] The results indicated that LWC, LAI, CAP, NDVI, PRI and F761showed a downward trend along with the prolonging of the drought stress, while WI showed an increasing trend. Extremely significant differences (P<0.01) were found among drought treatments and CK for all parameters. NDVI, PRI and WI were significantly correlated with LAI and LWC (P<0.01). The absolute values of correlation coefficient for NDVI, PRI, WI, F761with LAI (|r|>0.6) were lower than those with LWC (|r|>0.8). F761 was better correlated with leaf water content and LAI than other spectral indices. [Conclusion] It was concluded that CAP, PRI, NDVI, WI and F761 are good indicators in cotton leaves during drought stress. Solar-induced fluorescence seems more sensitive to leaf water status than other spectral indices at canopy level in cotton.
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Effects of Exogenous 24-epibrassinolide on Photosynthetic Physiology of CottonSeedlings under Low Temperature
Li Shuye, Ma Huijuan, Zhang Siping, Liu Shaodong, Shen Qian, Chen Jing, Ge Changwei, Pang Chaoyou, Zhao Xinhua
Cotton Science. 2018, 30 (3): 252-260.   DOI: 10.11963/1002-7807.lsyzxh.20180409
Abstract ( 22 PDF (2126KB) ( 0 )
[Objective] The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of exogenous 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on the photosynthetic physiology of cotton seedlings under low temperature and to provide basis for improving the cold tolerance of cotton by using EBR as growth regulator. [Method] Taking CCRI 60, Lumianyan 28 and Simian 3 as materials, a field experiment was carried out in Institute of Cotton Research of CAAS(Anyang county, Henan province). Before the first low temperature treatment, the cotton seedlings were sprayed with distilled water (Control) and different concentrations of EBR (0.1 mg·L-1 and 0.2 mg·L-1), respectively. After 3 days, the relative electrical conductivity, chlorophyll content, rapid chlorophyll fluorescence induction kinetic curve (OJIP) and fluorescence parameters were measured. [Result] Under low temperature, the relative conductivity of CCRI 60, Lumianyan 28 and Simian 3 spraying with EBR decreased by 17.7%~32.8% compared with control, and there was no significant difference between CCRI 60 and Lumianyan 28 in different concentrations of EBR treatments, but the relative conductivity of Simian 3 treating with 0.2 mg·L-1 EBR was significantly lower than those treatments with 0.1 mg·L-1 EBR . The chl a and chl b contents increased by 9.7%~32.6% and 15.0%~18.9%, respectively. The maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystemⅡ (Fv/FM) and photosynthetic performance index on absorption basis(PIABS) increased significantly. PIABS of CCRI 60 increase the maximum by 75.6% using 0.1 mg·L-1 EBR. Lumianyan 28 and Simian 3 increased the maximum by 101.1% and 265.6% using 0.2 mg·L-1 EBR, respectively; Absorbed photon flux per cross section (ABS/CSm), electron transport flux (further than QA) per active reactive center (ETo/RC) and probability for electron transport (φEo) are significantly increased. [Conclusion] Exogenous EBR can enhance the ability of low temperature tolerance of cotton seedlings and alleviate the inhibition of photosynthesis in cotton at low temperature. The study showed that 0.1 mg·L-1 EBR performs well in CCRI 60 and 0.2 mg·L-1 in Lumianyan 28 and Simian 3.
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The Effect of Spraying Concentrated Biogas on Growth and Physiological Characteristics of Cotton Seedling
Xu Ruiqiang, Dong Helin, Xu Wenxiu, Kadiliya Avudukelimu, Adina Baishanhali, Dong Taili, Fu Chuancui, Wurentuya Pilijia, Tang Jianghua
Cotton Science. 2018, 30 (3): 261-271.   DOI: 10.11963/1002-7807.xrqxwx.20180510
Abstract ( 32 PDF (2259KB) ( 0 )
[Objective] The effect of concentrated biogas slurry on growth and physiological characteristics of cotton seedlings was studied in this experiment, and theoretical basis for the rational application of concentrated biogas slurry was provided. [Method] Potted cotton seedlings was sprayed by five different dosages of concentrated biogas slurry, the impact of different spraying quantity (163 mL·hm-2, 326 mL·hm-2, 489 mL·hm-2, 668 mL·hm-2, 815 mL·hm-2) after spraying time (after spraying 2nd day, 4th day, 6th day) on cotton seedlings growth and physiological indexes were studied. [Results] The results showed that the suitable quantity of spraying of concentrated biogas slurry had promoting effect to the cotton growth and development, the excess concentrated biogas slurry could inhibit the growth of cotton seedlings. The plant height, dry weight per plant and leaf area of spraying 489 mL·hm-2 processing are the highest, the average of two batches on the 6th day after spraying are 21.15%, 35.95%, 18.84% higher than CK, respectively. Spraying concentrated biogas slurry can improve cotton seedlings chlorophyll content, soluble sugar contents, soluble protein content. Spraying 489 mL·hm-2  processing is the highest in both batches, the average of two batches is 18.84%, 24.03%, 3.16% higher than CK, respectively. The result of concentrated biogas slurry on seedlings leaves took effect quickly, especially in 0~4th days. [Conclusion] It is concluded that the suitable amount of concentrated biogas slurry has a positive effect on the growth and physiological characteristics of cotton seedlings, which is beneficial to the formation of strong seedlings of cotton and provides the basis for the later growth of cotton.
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Identifying the Pathogen of Cotton Leaf Spot Based on the Analysis of rDNA-ITS and Histone 3 Gene Sequence in Xinjiang
Cotton Science. 2018, 30 (3): 271-281.   DOI: 10.11962/1002-7807.lyczl.20180508
Abstract ( 21 PDF (3753KB) ( 0 )
[Objective] The objective of this experiment is to identify pathogens causing cotton leaf spot in Xinjiang. [Method] Two hundred and six leaf samples displaying typical leaf spot symptoms were collected from 30 loci in 7 different regions of Xinjiang in 2016 and 2017. The fungal isolates were purified using conventional methods. Ten representative fungal strains were selected for further tests based on different sampling times, locations, and colony characteristics. The strains were identified based on their morphological characteristics and the sequence analysis of both rDNA internal transcribed spacer and histone 3 gene. [Result] In north of Xinjiang, Alternaria alternata and A. tenuissima were the dominant pathogens at the seedling stage (from May to June), whereas in August and September, A. tenuissima was the main pathogen and few were A. alternata and A. macrospora. In south of Xinjiang, A. tenuissima was the main pathogen at the seedling stage, whereas in August and September, A. tenuissima and A. macrospora dominated. Further, Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense was mainly infected with A. tenuissima and A. macrospora, respectively. [Conclusion] The main pathogens causing cotton leaf spot in Xinjiang are A. alternata, A. tenuissima and A. macrospora.
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Development of a Biological Complex Seed-Coating Agent to Control Verticillium Wilt
Chen Lihua, He Pengfei, Yuan Dechao, Ou Xiaohui, Wu Yixin, He Yueqiu
Cotton Science. 2018, 30 (3): 282-290,封三.   DOI: 10.11963/1002-7807.clhhyq.20180509
Abstract ( 22 PDF (2512KB) ( 0 )
[Objective] The aim of this study is to make use of the antagonism and growth promoting ability of Bacillus methylophicus strain LH-L3, and add it into the chemical seed-coating agent as an active ingredient. [Method] The optimum formula (agent No.4: 2.5% fludioxonil+10% thiram+10% carbofuran+109 cfu·mL-1 LH-L3) was obtained based on the sterilization effect of four seed coating agents on infected seed. Then the survival ability of the strain in agent No.4 and its shelf life were identified by plate test. Finally, the disease and pest control effects were tested in the greenhouse pot experiment. [Result] The results showed that the agent No. 4 had the best control effect, and 1.1×105 cfu·mL-1 of LH-L3 after storage at room temperature for 6 months. Compared with the control, the formula No. 4 increased 11.54% emergence rate, 18.74% plant type height and 20.91% leaf width, respectively, in the 15th day after emergence, and decreased 65.42% and 48.56% of Verticillium wilt at day 2 and day 5 after the disease occurred. The cotton seeds coated with formula No. 4 reduced 83.07% of plant and 92.33% of leaf damaged by Sylepta derogata, compared with the negative control without seed coating. [Conclusion] Strain LH-L3 and chemical pesticide compound as a seed coat agent is completely feasible. And the developed biological complex seed-coating agent has better control effect on Verticillium wilt and Sylepta derogate.
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