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Cotton Science
Volume 33 Issue 4
15 July 2021
  
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    RESEARCH REPORTS
    Comparative analysis of cotton yield, benefit and nitrogen efficiency in different planting systems
    Yang Changqin,Zhang Guowei,Wang Xiaojing,Liu Ruixian,Ni Wanchao
    2021, 33(4):  307-318.  doi:10.11963/cs20200082
    Abstract ( 120 )   HTML ( 92)   PDF (2167KB) ( 27 )  
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    [Objective] Field experiment was carried out to study the effect of different planting systems on lint yield, economic benefit, and nitrogen efficiency of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in the Yangtze River valley and to provide theoretical support for high yield and efficiency production of cotton. [Method] A split-plot experiment was conducted to explore the biomass accumulation and allocation characteristics, lint yield, economic benefit and nitrogen efficiency of cotton in response to different planting patterns (transplanting and field-seeded), varieties (early-maturing and medium-maturing) and nitrogen applications(no nitrogen and optimum nitrogen). [Result] The growing process fasted especially for the seedling stage under field-seeded pattern compared with that under transplanting pattern. The biomass and nitrogen accumulation at the medium-late stage of cotton under field-seeded pattern were higher than those under transplanting pattern, and the economic coefficients of early-maturing variety were higher than those of medium-maturing variety. The lint yield of the early-maturing variety under field-seeded pattern and the medium-maturity variety under transplanting pattern were higher under nitrogen application, and the difference between them was not significant. Under nitrogen application, the output value of seed cotton under transplanting pattern was 1.0-1.2 times of that under field-seeded pattern, but the cost of the former was 1.8-2.0 times of that of the latter, and the benefit of the former was only 23.0%-43.1% of the latter. The effects of planting pattern on the nitrogen agronomic efficiency (NAE) and nitrogen apparent recovery efficiency (NARE) were greater than those of variety and nitrogen application, and the NAE and NARE under field-seeded pattern were 40.0% and 76.4% (2017) higher than those under transplanting pattern. The effects of variety on nitrogen production efficiency (NPE) were greater than those of planting pattern and nitrogen application, and the NPE of early-maturing variety was 45.3% higher than medium-maturing variety in 2017. [Conclusion] The early-maturing variety with optimum nitrogen application under field-seeded pattern was conducive to higher yield, lower cost and higher benefit, and has higher NAE, NARE and NPE, which is the high yield and efficiency planting system for cotton after wheat in the Yangtze River valley.

    Cloning and functional analysis of GhRH39, a gene related to leaf development, in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)
    Bian Yingjie,Wang Hantao,Wei Hengling,Zhang Meng,Li Yi,Yu Shuxun
    2021, 33(4):  319-327.  doi:10.11963/cs20200028
    Abstract ( 100 )   HTML ( 54)   PDF (3127KB) ( 30 )  
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    [Objective] The aim of this article is to study the function of GhRH39, a DEAD-box RNA helicase gene, in leaf development of upland cotton. [Methode] The gene structure and evolutionary relationships of GhRH39 were analyzed using bioinformatic approaches. The expression patterns of GhRH39 in different tissues and different leaf development stages were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) was applied to silence the gene. The phenotypes of GhRH39-silenced plants were observead and pigment contents were detected. The expression levels of those genes related to chloroplast development and photosynthetic pigments synthesis in the GhRH39-silenced plants were detected. [Results] Bioinformatic analysis showed that GhRH39 encoding 620 amino acids had conservative sequence. The expressions of GhRH39 were detected in root, stem, leaf, apical bud, petal and fiber. Its expression level is higher in leaf, and changed with the development process of leaf. The expression of GhRH39 was successfully suppressed by VIGS. The virescent leaves were appeared in GhRH39-silenced cotton plants, in which the contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoid all decreased. To some extent, the expressions of those genes related to development of chloroplast and photosynthetic pigments synthesis decreased in the GhRH39-silenced plants. [Conclusion] GhRH39 gene may affect the synthesis of chlorophyll a and b, and carotenoid, and affect the development of chloroplast in cotton.

    Study on the development, oogenesis and follicular epithelial cell of Propylea japonica
    Huangfu Ningbo,Gao Xueke,Wang Li,Zhu Xiangzhen,Zhang Kaixin,Li Dongyang,Ji Jichao,Luo Junyu,Cui Jinjie
    2021, 33(4):  328-336.  doi:10.11963/cs20210021
    Abstract ( 101 )   HTML ( 23)   PDF (3544KB) ( 10 )  
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    [Objective] The Propylea japonica is an important predator in farmland. It is very important to reveal the growth and development, the regularity of the development of oogenesis and follicular epithelial cell in P. japonica for solving the problem of artificial propagation of ladybirds. [Methode] The parameters related to the development and reproduction of P. japonica were measured. The morphology of ovarioles and follicular epithelial cells of P. japonica were systematically observed by staining of nucleus and cytoskeleton. [Result] (1) The results showed that the average duration of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar larvae, and pupa, female adults, and male adults of P. japonica were 1.13 d±0.09 d, 1.48 d±0.11 d, 1.34 d±0.08 d, 2.34 d±0.06 d, 2.81 d±0.08 d, 51.08 d±1.13 d and 48.36 d±1.29 d, respectively. The body length increased rapidly from the 2nd to the 3rd instars larvae. The larva reached the longest body length of 9.32 mm±0.27 mm at the 4th instar, and the body width reached the widest of 3.70 mm±0.05 mm in adult. (2) The highest daily average oviposition of a female was 14.42±2.36. The average number of eggs laid by a single female was 414±41.27, and the maximum number was 654. (3) The dynamic changes of follicles and oocytes were defined, and the formation of space (patency) between the follicular epithelial cells during yolk deposition phase was observed, which was mainly used for the uptake of vitellogenin by the oocytes. [Conclusion] In this study, we confirmed the regularity of body length, body width, oogenesis, and follicular epithelial cell development of P. japonica. This study provides a theoretical basis for us to further explore the molecular mechanism of reproductive regulation and to solve the problem of artificial propagation.

    Identification and bioinformatic analysis of UGPase gene family in cotton
    Zhang Lan,Cheng Qi,Liang Shichen,Deng Yuxiao,Pan Yuxin
    2021, 33(4):  337-346.  doi:10.11963/cs20200065
    Abstract ( 99 )   HTML ( 39)   PDF (4487KB) ( 27 )  
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    [Objective] Uridine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase) is an important rate-limiting enzyme involved in glucose anabolism, which plays an important role in the development of plant fiber cells. However, there is little research in cotton UGPase genes. This study aimed to identify and analyze the characteristics of members of UGPase gene family in cotton. [Methode] Gossypium hirsutum, G. barbadense, G. arboreum, and G. raimondii were selected as the main research objects. The phylogenetic and expression characteristics of UGPase genes in G. hirsutum were analyzed by combining UGPase genes from 19 kinds of plants, including algae, rice, grape, cocao, durian, and so on. [Result] Phylogenetic analysis showed that UGPase genes were divided into two groups, UGPase-A and UGPase-B. Conserved motif and adaptive evolution analysis showed that UGPase-B type genes were very conservative in evolution, while UGPase-A type genes had great differences with UGPase-B in evolution. Homology analysis of UGPase genes in cotton, grape, cocao and durian showed that most of cotton UGPase genes originated from duplication events before the formation of allotetraploid cotton. The expression levels of UGPase-A type genes were higher at the initiation and elongation stage of cotton fiber development, and the expression levels of UGPase-B type genes were higher in vegetative organs. [Conclusion] The structure, function and evolution of cotton UGPase genes were analyzed, which laid the foundation for further study.

    Estimation of the defoliation rate of cotton based on unmanned aerial vehicle digital images
    Ma Yiru,Lü Xin,Qi Yaqin,Zhang Ze,Yi Xiang,Chen Xiangyu,Yan Tianying,Hou Tongyu
    2021, 33(4):  347-359.  doi:10.11963/cs20210003
    Abstract ( 119 )   HTML ( 12)   PDF (4294KB) ( 31 )  
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    [Objective] Defoliation rate is an important basis for evaluating defoliation and ripening effect of machine-picked cotton. In this study, 14 kinds of color vegetation index were extracted from RGB images to establish a fast and accurate estimation model for cotton defoliation rate, which provides a theoretical and technical basis for timely harvesting of machine-picked cotton. [Methode] Different cotton varieties were set up. The data of cotton defoliation rates of different defoliant concentrations and spraying times were collected, and the canopy RGB images were collected by unmanned arerial vehicle(UAV). The correlation between color vegetation index and cotton defoliation rate was analyzed. Then, the estimation model of cotton defoliation rates was constructed by using the methods of simple linear regression (SLR), multivariate linear regression (MLR) and partial least square regression (PLSR). Meanwhile, the model was evaluated. [Result] The results showed different cotton defoliation rates after different treatments. There was a remarkable correlation between the defoliation rate and the visible light vegetation index; especially, the correlation coefficient between the triangular greenness index (TGI) and cotton defoliation rate is up to 0.81. The results showed that the model based on TGI index was the best in the linear regression model, coefficient of determination (R2) = 0.66, root mean squared error (RMSE) = 10.44%, relative RMSE (rRMSE) = 12.87%; the model based on excess blue index (ExB), green leaf index (GLI), TGI and excess green index (ExG) was outstanding in the multiple linear regression models (R2 = 0.70, RMSE = 10.26%, rRMSE = 12.65%). In the PLSR models, the one with ExB, GLI, TGI, ExG, Comprehensive 2 and Comprehensive 1, had higher accuracy, R2= 0.70, RMSE = 10.02%, rRMSE = 12.22%. The external verification showed that there was a good fitting relationship between the measured values and the predicted values of each model. [Conclusion] The model established by MLR and PLSR has high accuracy and great fitting degree. Therefore, considering of the weight computation and complexity, the cotton defoliation rate estimation model established with ExB, GLI, TGI and ExG has excellent performance.

    RESEARCH NOTES
    Breeding of the photosensitive male sterile line psm5 in cotton and the pattern of fertility transformation
    Gou Haoqi,Ma Changkai,Zhang Qian,Fan Shuli,Ma Qifeng,Zhang Chaojun
    2021, 33(4):  360-367.  doi:10.11963/cs20200025
    Abstract ( 98 )   HTML ( 7)   PDF (2241KB) ( 8 )  
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    [Objective] The aim of this study is to breed new photosensitive male sterile lines in cotton, and to obtain excellent sterile parents to speed up premium cotton breeding process. [Methode] In this paper, the psm4 photosensitive male sterile line was crossed to W10 firstly, and then the hybrid F1 was self-pollinated by 3 generations to produce the psm5, which had the same photosensitive male sterile trait as psm4. [Result] The anther of psm5 could not crack and its pollen could not be released normally when the illumination time was more than 12.5 h, but the anther could crack and the pollen could be released normally when the illumination time was less than 11.5 h. [Conclusion] This paper introduces the breeding process and photosensitive characteristics of psm5, which provides a reliable theoretical basis for the application of psm5 in crossbreeding. The fertility transition period of psm4 and psm5 is in 12~15 days before flowering, and both psm4 and psm5 are typical sporophyte photosensitive male sterile lines. psm5, a recessive photosensitive male sterile line, has a wide range of restorer lines, which is easy to make superior hybrid combinations and has a good application prospect in cotton crossbreeding.

    Evaluation on the genetic effects of FBP7::iaaM gene in upland cotton
    Cheng Cheng,Li Bin,Wang Yali,Zhao Nan,Su Ying,Nie Hushuai,Hua Jinping
    2021, 33(4):  368-376.  doi:10.11963/cs20200060
    Abstract ( 93 )   HTML ( 16)   PDF (931KB) ( 11 )  
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    [Objective] The aim of this study is to evaluate the genetic effect of FBP7::iaaM gene on fiber yield, quality and seed vigor in different upland cotton varieties. [Methode] In this study, IF1-1 was used as a male parent to produce hybrids with 27 cotton varieties of different genetic backgrounds, which are CCRI 12 and Ekangmian No. 9 and their originated parent lines. The lint percentage, seed index, fiber quality traits, germination potential and seed germination rate of F1 were detected to evaluate the breeding value of FBP7::iaaM gene in IF1-1. [Result] The lint percentage of F1 hybrids with FBP7::iaaM gene increased by an average of 6.60 percentage points, and seed index decreased with an average of 1.8 g, and the FBP7::iaaM gene had no negative effect on seed germination potential and germination rate. Most F1 hybrids showed better fiber quality, such as fiber micronaire, fiber length, breaking tenacity, and breaking elongation. [Conclusion] In one word, IF1-1 germplasm line with FBP7::iaaM gene showed important potential in genetic improvement in upland cotton.

    Identification of SbHKT insertion site in Gossypium hirsutum genome based on re-sequencing technology
    Xu Peng,Guo Qi,Xu Zhenzhen,Meng Shan,Chen Tianzi,Shen Xinlian
    2021, 33(4):  377-383.  doi:10/11963/cs20190115
    Abstract ( 29 )   HTML ( 11)   PDF (3711KB) ( 10 )  
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    [Objective] The purpose of this study was to identify the SbHKT insertion site in Gossypium hirsutum genome. [Methode] The flanking sequences at the insertion sites were obtained by local BlastN alignment. The T-DNA insertion site was validated by specific primer polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. [Result] A 107 bp left border (LB) flanking sequence named HKT1_LSEQ and a 122 bp right border (RB) flanking sequence named HKT1_RSEQ were obtained. It was shown that the insertion of SbHKT gene caused chromosomal structural variation in upland cotton after anchoring HKT1_LSEQ and HKT1_RSEQ to reference genome of G. hirsutum. Specific PCR primers were designed in the flanking sequences of LB and RB to amplify the intact T-DNA of the HKT-1 strain. The sequencing of the target band revealed that it contained complete T-DNA skeleton sequence and SbHKT gene sequences. HKT1_LSEQ and HKT1_RSEQ were proved to be the flanking sequences of the same insertion. [Conclusion] The flanking sequences of SbHKT insertion site were obtained based on re-sequencing technology. A method for specific detection of SbHKT gene transformation events was established.