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15 September 2020, Volume 32 Issue 5
    Effect of Coronatine on AsA-GSH Cycle of Cotton Seedling under Low Temperature Stress
    Li Jin, Zhai Menghua, Yu Chunxin, Wang Li, Zhang Jungao, Zhou Xiaoyun, Liang Jing, Duan Liusheng, Lei Bin
    2020, 32(5):  381-391.  doi:10.11963/1002-7807.ljlb.20200729
    Abstract ( 89 )   PDF (3693KB) ( 56 )  
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    [Objective] In order to explore the stress-resistant mechanism of coronatine, an indoor experiment was conducted to study the effect of coronatine on ascorbate-glutathione circulatory system of the vegetative organs of cotton seedling under low temperature stress. [Method] Xinluzao 57 was used as the experimental material, when the seedlings reached the two-leaf stage, they were treated at 25 ℃ and 4 ℃ after spraying water, marked as CK and LT; the same treatment was conducted after spraying 0.01 μmol·L-1 coronatine, marked as COR and (LT+COR). After 1 d of treatment, the roots, stems and leaves of cotton seedling were collected to determine the antioxidant contents and antioxidant enzyme activities. [Result] Compared with the control treatment (CK), the APX, MDHAR activities and DHA, GSH, glutathione contents decreased, the GPX activity, AsA and ascorbate contents increased, and no significant effect on DHAR and GR activities were observed in roots, stems and leaves of cotton seedling after spraying water at low temperature (LT), while in leaves, the GSSG content decreased, AsA-DHA ratio and GSH-GSSG ratio showed the maximum increase. Compared with the LT treatment, spraying COR at low temperature (LT+COR) showed increased APX, MDHAR, DHAR, GPX, GR activities and AsA, DHA, GSH, ascorbate contents; glutathione content in roots, stems and leaves of cotton seedling, and GSSG content, AsA-DHA ratio and GSH-GSSG ratio obviously changed in leaves. [Conclusion] Spraying COR at low temperature could regulate the AsA-GSH metabolism and alleviate the damage caused by low temperature to cotton seedling. COR had the strongest relieving effect on seedling leaves.
    Study on Hyperspectral Diagnosis of Nitrogen Nutrition Index among Different Cotton Varieties  under Drip Irrigation
    Zhang Ze, Ma Lulu, Hong Shuai, Lin Jiao, Zhang Lifu, Lü Xin
    2020, 32(5):  392-403.  doi:10.11963/1002-7807.zzlx.20200716
    Abstract ( 43 )   PDF (2615KB) ( 25 )  
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    [Objective] To explore the feasibility of rapid and accurate diagnosis of nitrogen nutrition index investigeted nitrogen nutrition index and hyperspectral index in different varieties of drip irrigation cotton. [Method] Five cotton varieties with different characters were selected as the research object under different fertilization conditions, the correlation between nitrogen nutrient index and 17 spectral indices was explored. Then the diagnosis model of nitrogen nutrition was established and verified. [Results] The difference of nitrogen nutrition index among different cotton varieties of drip-irrigation was significant, the hybrid cotton could approach the best condition of nitrogen nutrition level more quickly. In the multiple regression model of nitrogen nutrition index based on hyperspectral analysis, Lumianyan 24 had the highest R2, which reached the high level of 0.8. The precision of the model established by Lumianyan 24 was the highest under two years' data verification. [Conclusion] The hyperspectral monitoring model based on nitrogen nutrition index can be used to monitor nitrogen nutrient status of plant. The results of this experiment can provide theoretical basis for precision fertilization in later stage agriculture. 
    Identification of MADS-box Family and Analysis of Tissue Specific Expression in Gossypium hirsutum L.
    Zhang Ai, Wang Caixiang, Su Junji, Zhang Xianliang, Shi Chunhui, Liu Juanjuan, Peng Yunling, Ma Xiongfeng
    2020, 32(5):  404-417.  doi:10.11963/1002-7807.zamxf.20200831
    Abstract ( 105 )   PDF (6829KB) ( 84 )  
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    [Objective] MADS-box is an important transcription factor regulating the growth and development processes in cotton. Identification and screening upland cotton MADS-box genes is indispensible for accelerating their studying of biological functions. [Method] This article based on the upland cotton TM-1 reference genome assembled in 2019, all members of upland cotton MADS-box family were identified through HMMER 3.0 software. MapInspect, MEGA 7.0, MEME, TBtools and omicshare website were utilized to analyze chromosome location, phylogenetic relationship, motif prediction, gene structure, and tissue-specific expression of MADS-box genes. [Result] One hundred and eighty one upland cotton MADS-box genes (66 Type Ⅰ and 115 MIKC genes) were identified in total, which located on 26 chromosomes. The Type I proteins were scattered on 3 subfamilies and the MIKC proteins were divided into MIKC* and MIKCC which contain 10 subfamilies. The prediction results of motif showed that all proteins of MADS-box family contain MADS domain and gene structure analysis revealed that the structure and length of exons and introns are similar in one subfamily. Tissue-specific expression analysis found that 33 MADS-box genes were mainly expressed in fibrous tissue, 103 genes were primarily expressed in floral organs, and 41 genes were strongly expressed in roots and stems. [Conclusion] The MADS-box genes related to flowering regulation and fiber development of upland cotton were obtained in the study, which has theoretical significance for revealing the genetic regulation mechanism of cotton fiber quality and has application value for molecular breeding.
    Responses and Underlying Mechanisms of Different Mainstem Leaves on Cotton to Defoliant Thidiazuron
    Liao Baopeng, Wang Songman, Du Mingwei, Li Fangjun, Tian Xiaoli, Li Zhaohu
    2020, 32(5):  418-424.  doi:10.11963/1002-7807.lbpdmw.20200817
    Abstract ( 59 )   PDF (2346KB) ( 48 )  
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    [Objective] This study elucidates the responses of different mainstem leaves on cotton to defoliant thidiazuron and reveal the underlying mechanisms. [Method] Cotton plants were raised hydroponically. At the ten-leaf stage, 4.54 mmol·L-1 thidiazuron was evenly applied to all mainstem leaves, the youngest full-expanded leaf (the fourth leaf from apex) and the youngest leaf (the first leaf from apex). Then, the progress of abscission zone formation and shedding of each leaf was observed, and the expression level of genes related to ethylene synthesis and signal transduction in the fourth and first leaf from apex was analysed. [Result] The abscission zone developed in the following sequence: the first leaf from the top, then the lowest leaves (the ninth or tenth leaf from the top, 35-40 days old), and the fourth leaf from the top. However, the leaf abscission was in a different order: the earliest was the first leaf from apex, then the fourth leaf from apex, and the latest was the lowest leaves which were prone to wither and stick to the stalk. The GhACS1 expression was up regulated in both the first leaf and the fourth leaf from apex within 24 h after thidiazuron treatment. However, the expression of this gene changed more rapidly and sharply in the first leaf from the top than that in the fourth leaf  from the top. In addition, the expression of GhACO1 (ethylene synthesis gene), GhEIN3 and GhERF23 (ethylene signal transduction genes) was significantly increased up to ten times in the first leaf from the top, whereas the expression of these genes did not change in the fourth leaf from the apex. [Conclusion] After exposed to defoliant thidiazuron, the time of the abscission zone formation of different leaves on cotton main stem is different, and the order of shedding is not consistent with that of abscission zone formation. The youngest ready to expand leaf abscises earlier than the youngest fully expanded leaf after thidiazuron treatment, which is possibly associated with the rapid expression change of genes related to ethylene synthesis and signal transduction in the former.
    Cotton Chemical Topping by Applying DPC in Different Cotton-Growing Regions 
    Qi Haikun, Wang Sai, Xu Dongyong, Lu Zhengying, Zhao Wenchao, Hao Yanjie, Zhang Xiang, Li Wei, Han Huanyong, Wang Jiangtao, Wang Hongzhe, Chen Hongzhang, Wang Lin, Du Mingwei, Tian Xiaoli, Li Zhaohu
    2020, 32(5):  425-437.  doi:10.11963/1002-7807.qhklzh.20200729
    Abstract ( 52 )   PDF (2133KB) ( 44 )  
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    [Objective] The objective of this study was to investigate the stability and universality of cotton chemical topping by applying mepiquat chloride (1,1-dimethyl-piperidinium chloride, DPC) in different cotton-growing regions. [Method] Field experiments were conducted in 2018 at 10 locations in the Yellow River basin (Hejian and Handan, Hebei province; Dezhou and Wudi, Shandong province), the Yangtze River basin (Dafeng, Jiangsu province; Huanggang, Hubei province), and Xinjiang area (Shihezi location I and loacation II, northern Xinjiang and Luntai and Shaya, southern Xinjiang). Local cultivars/lines were used, and the experiments were performed using a randomized complete block design with three or four replicates. Accompanied with typical DPC multi-application in each location, chemical topping was conducted at 10 days before manual topping (T1) or at the same time with manual topping (T2) by applying four dosages of DPC (0, 90, 180, 270 g·hm-2), manual topping was used as the first control and non-topping as the second control. [Result] The time of chemical topping significantly affected cotton plant height (except for the results in Handan, Dezhou and Wudi) and the number of fruit branches (except for the results in Dafeng and Huanggang). It was observed that earlier chemical topping would result in lower cotton plant height and a fewer fruit branches. In Hejian and Shihezi location I, the average plant height across DPC chemical topping at T1 stage was not only lower than that of T2 stage but also 3.3 cm and 4.6 cm lower than that of manual topping, respectively. In most locations, chemical topping at T1 stage increased around two fruit branches per plant compared with manual topping, while in T2 stage the increased fruit branches per plant ranged from 2.3 to 7.7. Also, we found that a higher dosage of DPC resulted in shorter plant height (except for that in Huanggang). In some locations, plant heights of chemical topping with 180 g·hm-2 or 270 g·hm-2 DPC were even shorter than that of manual topping. The number of fruit branches per plant of 0 g·hm-2 DPC increased by 2.4-8.3 compared with manual topping. However, chemical topping with 90-270 g·hm-2 DPC significantly reduced the number of fruit branches compared with 0 g·hm-2 DPC. There were no significant differences in the number of fruit branches among three DPC dosages (90, 180, and 270 g·hm-2). In Handan, seed cotton yield of chemical topping at T2 stage was significantly lower than that of manual topping due to the decreased boll number, which is possibly associated with the high temperature and drought weather after chemical topping. While at other locations, most treatments of chemical topping by using DPC did not produce significant effects on yield. In addition, chemical topping by using DPC did not delay cotton maturity, characterized by their similar boll-opening rate and the first harvest rate to those of manual topping before spraying harvest aids. [Conclusion] Cotton chemical topping with DPC is more stable and universal across different cotton-growing regions. We suggest that 90-180 g·hm-2 DPC could be used at the same time with manual topping for cotton chemical topping.
    Effects of Planting Density and Chemical control on Yield and Mineral Elements  Accumulation of Cotton Direct-Seeded after Wheat
    Wu Xinling, Geng Jijia, Cao Lifang, Lin Yuan, Liu Xiaofei, Cai Zezhou, Chen Yuan, Zhang Xiang, Chen Dehua
    2020, 32(5):  438-448.  doi:10.11963/1002-7807.wxlcdh.20200709
    Abstract ( 29 )   PDF (1825KB) ( 23 )  
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    [Objective] The effects of planting density and Miantaijin treatment on yield and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake and accumulation in cotton direct-seeded after wheat in the Yangtze River basin were studied in order to clarify the high-yield cultivation techniques under this cropping system. 【Method】 In 2011 and 2012, Guoxinzao 11-1 at the experimental material, and adopted three densities (75 000, 90 000 and 105 000 plants·hm-2) and three Miantaijin doses (0 mL·hm-2, 1 170 mL·hm-2 and 2 340 mL·hm-2). 【Result】 The results showed that the highest yield was 3 551.3~3 687.5 kg·hm-2 under 90 000~105 000 plant·hm-2 density combined with 1 170 mL·hm-2 Miantaijin (seedling stage: 90 mL·hm-2, peak squaring stage: 180 mL·hm-2, peak flowering stage: 360 mL·hm-2, peak boll-setting stage: 540 mL·hm-2). Under these conditions, the highest uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was 117.8 kg·hm-2, 77.4 kg·hm-2, 116.4 kg·hm-2, respectively. Among them, nitrogen uptake was the highest in the peak-squaring stage to peak-flowering stage, while the highest phosphorus and potassium uptake were both detected in the peak-flowering to boll-opening stage. The correlation analysis showed that there was a significant linear positive correlation between the yield of direct seeded cotton after wheat and the total absorption and accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, especially during the peak flowering to boll-opening stage. 【Conclusion】 The suitable application dose of Miantaijin under medium and high density could enhance the absorption of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the whole growth period of cotton, especially in the peak flowering to boll-opening stage. and thus result in the high yield of direct-seeded cotton after wheat in the Yangtze River basin.
    Putative Identification and Adduct Formation of Reference Materials for Cotton Secondary Metabolite using UPLC-ESI-MS Analysis
    Li Shezeng, Niu Luxin, Li Bochao, Chen Xiuye, Ma Ping, Ma Zhiying
    2020, 32(5):  449-462.  doi:10.11963/1002-7807.lszmzy.20200723
    Abstract ( 11 )   PDF (1531KB) ( 4 )  
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    [Objective] The aim of this study is to establish an method for cotton metabolites identification by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS) analysis, and to investigate the adduct types, dominant adducts and appropriate ESI ion modes of cotton secondary metabolites under the determined UPLC and ESI conditions. [Method] UPLC-ESI-MS was employed to analyze 18 cotton metabolite standards, Online XCMS software was used to extract the nontargeted mass spectrum data, and MATLAB software was used to prepare calculation programs for the identification method of cotton metabolite standards. [Result] A high-throughput identification method of cotton secondary metabolite, named POSid and NEGid separately for the positive and negative ESI modes, was established based on the calculated accurate molecular weight. In the determined UPLC condition and positive and negative ESI mode, 14 cotton metabolite standards were correctly identified. There found 6 adducts including [M+H]+, [M+Na]+, [M+NH4]+, [2M+NH4]+, [2M+Na]+ and [2M+H]+ in positive ion mode, and 8 adducts including [M-H]-, [2M-H]-, [M+Cl]-, [M+FA-H]-, [3M-H]-, [M+Na-2H]-, [M-H2O-H]- and [M+TFA-H]- in negative ion mode, while 1 to 6 adducts were observed in the mass spectrum of a single standard, and each metabolite standard had a dominant adduct of a preference for ESI mode. Melibose was suitable for ESI positive ion mode detection, gossypol was suitable for both ion modes detection; and 12 compounds were suitable for negative ion mode detection due to mass spectrum signals of their dominant adduct stronger in negative ion mode than positive ion mode. [Conclusion] Based on the accurate molecular weight, the established identifying method can identify the 18 cotton metabolite standards with their nontarget mass spectrometry data. Under the determined UPLC and ESI condition, the dominant adducts of cotton secondary metabolites have the preference of ESI mode. These results provide technical and theoretical data support for further study of cotton metabolomics.
    QTL Mapping of Chlorophyll Content in Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense Backcross Inbred Lines
    Geng Yanhui, Bian Yingying, Pei Wenfeng, Liu Guoyuan, Wu Man, Zang Xinshan, Li Dan, Li Xingli, Zhang Jinfa, Yu Jiwen
    2020, 32(5):  463-471.  doi:10.11963/1002-7807.gyhyjw.202009
    Abstract ( 54 )   PDF (1408KB) ( 32 )  
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    [Objective] The purpose of this study was to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to chlorophyll content based on Soil and Plant Analyzer Development (SPAD) readings in cotton. [Method] The 195 BILs (Backcross Inbred Lines) were produced by a cross between Gossypium barbadense Hai 7124 and G. hirsutum CRI 36, using CRI 36 as the recurrent parent for backcrossing with F1 to produce BC1F1, followed by seven generations of selfing. The genetic linkage map was constructed in a previous study. QTLs of chlorophyll SPAD value in the first flowering and boll development stages were identified with inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM) method of the BIP and MET models in IciMapping 4.1 software, respectively. [Result] In total, nine chlorophyll SPAD reading QTLs were identified on 6 chromosomes. The q-SPAD-A11-1 detected at the first flowering stage overlapped with q-SPAD-A11-2 detected at the boll development stage, contributing 5.08% and 5.75% of the phenotypic variation, respectively. The q-SPAD-D08-2 physical position ranged from 48.71 to 53.65 Mb on chromosome D08, which overlapped with a chlorophyll content QTL detected in a previous study. [Conclusion] The novel stable QTLs, q-SPAD-A11-1 and q-SPAD-A11-2 detected in this study provide an important piece of information for fine mapping chlorophyll content in cotton.
    Recent Advances in the Enhancement of Agroecosystem Services and Functioning by Cotton-based Intercropping Systems
    Li Xiaofei, Han Yingchun, Wang Guoping, Wang Zhanbiao, Feng Lu, Yang Beifang, Fan Zhengyi, Lei Yaping, Xiong Shiwu, Xing Fangfang, Li Yabing
    2020, 32(5):  472-482.  doi:10.11963/1002-7807.lxflyb.20200826
    Abstract ( 56 )   PDF (1137KB) ( 23 )  
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    Cotton-based intercropping systems are one of modern agriculture farming systems aiming at improving overall economic profitability of cotton field, which not only release the competition for land between other crops and cotton and increase growing area and yield of both crops, but also represent a mechanistic approach to reconciling crop production and biodiversity conservation. Recently, cotton-based intercropping systems have been widely focused and applied. Here, we reviewed the potential of cotton-based intercropping systems to reinforce agroecosystem services and functioning, including promoted plant biodiversity, improved overall productivity and economic profits, increased light use efficiency, improved cotton quality, reduced pest and disease occurrence, and suppressed weed growth. Further, the underlying mechanisms behind the enhancement of agroecosystem services and functioning by cotton-based intercropping systems through niche complementarity, interspecific facilitation, and allelopathy between intercropped species were summarized in the paper. Finally, the research prospects were also pointed out.